Monitoring programme for veterinary control on seafood products imported to Norway from third countries – results from 2018

— In accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 136/2004, Annex II, Part 1

Forfatter(e): Helge Hove, Julia Storesund, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Monica Sanden og Martin Wiech (Havforskningsinstituttet)

Sammendrag

This report summarises results from the ongoing monitoring programme for veterinary border control on seafood products imported to Norway from countries outside the EU and the European Economic Area from 2018. The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) carried out the analytical work on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), in cooperation with the personnel at the Norwegian Border Inspection Posts (BIP). We want to thank NFSA for very good cooperation during the conduct of this monitoring programme. An up to date risk assessment for different groups of imported products, made the basis for the sampling plans and the selection of analytical activities. The current trend of hazards, as reported in The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notification system, the compositional nature of the products and the annual import quantity of relevant products, was evaluated in this risk assessment. A total of 122 samples from the NFSA, collected at the BIPs, were examined by a selection of analytical methods and assays for microorganisms, parasites and undesirable chemical substances. The analytical data are listed in Annex 1 and are summarised below. Microbiological analyses were performed on 104 samples. The results for microbiological indicator organisms for faecal contamination were mostly below detection limit or showed low bacterial counts. The microbiological quality parameters and indicator organisms for faecal contamination generally showed low numbers. However, higher counts were found in one sample of Yellowfin tuna imported from the Maldives and one sample of Pacific cod imported from Thailand. L. monocytogenes was detected in low quantity in one sample of Pacific cod from Thailand and in one sample of Norwegian herring re-imported to Norway from Egypt. No samples had pathogens in the genera Salmonella. Enterobacteriaceae was detected in one sample of feed imported from Chile.Yeast was found in two samples of feed from Chile, and in one sample of dried Yellow Stripe Trevally from Thailand and in Migas from China. Mould was detected in the same dried Yellow Stripe Trevally from Thailand and in Migas from China. Parasitological examination was carried out on 40 fish samples. Nematodes were found in nine of them (22.5%). Since fish were imported frozen, nematodes were dead and not infective. Thirteen seafood samples originating from aquaculture were analysed for residues of prohibited veterinary medicines, unauthorised dyes and antibacterial agents. None of these were detected. The chemical spoilage indicators histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen was examined in nineteen samples and all results were compliant with the maximum levels. Undesirable trace elements were measured in 89 samples. A sample of canned sardine in oil from the Philippines exceeded the maximum Cd level. A sample of small crabs from Thailand, assuming they were intended to be consumed whole, were slightly above the Pb maximum level. A frozen fillet sample of yellowfin tuna imported from Vietnam exceeded the Hg maximum level. Twenty-eight samples were analysed for the persistent organic pollutants dioxins/ furans and PCBs (DLPCBs and NDLPCBs), the PBDE class of compounds, the PAH class of compounds and organochlorine pesticides. One sample of fish oil from Turkey was found non-compliant with its maximum levels for dioxins and for the sum of dioxins and dioxin like PCBs. The levels of PBDEs in twenty-eight samples, and also the fifteen samples analysed for organochlorine pesticides, were within a range commonly observed in seafood. For the PAH class of compounds, one sample was analysed, and found compliant with its maximum levels.

1 - Introduction

As a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), Norway is obliged to monitor the conformity of products imported to the EEA area. As part of this activity, analytical examinations of seafood with respect to microorganisms, parasites and the presence of undesirable substances are conducted. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) is the competent authority regarding veterinary border control in Norway. On behalf of NFSA, IMR have carried out the analytical examination of the seafood samples in this monitoring programme and elaborated this report.

According to Commission Regulation (EC) No 136/2004 (EU, 2004; FOR-2015-11-30-1347) the monitoring plans must be based upon the nature of the products and the potential risks associated with the different product categories, concidering all relevant factors such as frequency and number of incoming consignments and results from previous monitoring. The selection of parameters included in the current analytical activity was based on previous findings in this program, as well as information available in the RASFF, “Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed” system of the European commission.

The spectrum of products examined by NFSA at veterinary border inspection points is large, as it reflects the annual flux and variation in the import activity. Thus, the methods used to examine the products are also diverse.

Microbiological parameters are used to evaluate the quality of seafood products and if proper hygienic measures were applied during production. To evaluate possible fecal contamination, analysis for common indicator organisms were conducted, including assays for coliforms, bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae family and enterococci. Furthermore, samples were analyzed for specific pathogens relevant for food safety, including bacteria in the geni Salmonella, Listeria and Vibrio. EU microbiological criteria, which Norway has implemented through the EEA agreement, have been established for Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes (Commission Regulation 2073/2005). In addition, analysis for H2S-producing bacteria in unpreserved and non-heat treated seafood was implemented, in order to provide information on the quality of fresh and frozen seafood, as well as hygienic standards during production.

The survey included the chemical spoilage indicators histamine and total volatile basic nitogen (TVN).

Parasites are common in commercially harvested seafood species. Parasites potentially have a negative human health impact and they can reduce the aesthetical appearance of the product. However, in seafood only a few widely distributed parasite species are of consumer health concern. The larvae of several species of roundworms (nematodes) commonly occur in commercially harvested marine fish stocks in temperate sea areas worldwide. In addition to the quality reducing effect of these parasites, they are of human health concern when found alive in undercooked, lightly brined, marinated or raw fish meat products. According to Regulation (EC) No 853/2004, fishery products intended to be consumed raw or almost raw should undergo a freezing treatment to kill viable parasites. This regulation does not apply to farmed fish when the absence of such parasites has been well documented (Commission Regulation 1276/2011). Accordingly, the number of nematodes only was determined in relevant products.

According to current EU legislation (Directive 96/23), some drugs are illegal to use in animals intended for food production. Thus, samples from aquaculture were analyzed for such agents. Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic agent with activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Due to a rare but serious dose-independent adverse effect (aplastic anaemia), this agent is not authorized in the treatment of food-producing animals, including fish. Nitrofuranes were previously widely used in veterinary medicine as an antimicrobial agent. They were banned from use in the European Union (EU) in 1995 due to concerns about the carcinogenicity of their residues in edible tissue. Relevant farmaceuticals were analysed in farmed seafood products.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) form a heterogeneous group of lipophilic substances that exhibit a range of chemical and toxicological characteristics. They are persistent in the environment and accumulate in food chains. Some clases of POPs are considered a dietary hazard to human health. The compliance of selected samples with the established maximum levels for food stuffs (EC 1881/2006) was evaluated for the contaminats: dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs, the EU selected “non-dioxin like-PCBs”, and for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Chlorinated pesticides and flame-retardant compounds in the polybrominated diphenyl ethers family (PBDEs) were also measured. However, maximum limits have not been established for these.

Undesirable trace elements relevant for seafood safety occur naturally in the environment with large geographical variations, due to their geological presence. Furthermore, they are released from anthropogenic sources. These compounds may to some extent accumulate in food chains and thus find their way into wild caught seafood. Cultured seafood can be affected via contaminated feed. As implemented in regulation EC 1881/2006, the elements cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), were measured and the compliance of the values with the maximum levels was evaluated. Arsenic (As) was also measured, although no maximum limit for As in seafood exists and only a minor fraction of the here measured total arsenic is present in the toxic inorganic form in seafood.

2 - Materials and methods

Sampling was carried out by NFSA at the Norwegian Border Inspection Posts (BIPs) while analytical examinations and the writing of this report was conducted by IMR. The sampling targeted hazards associated with each kind of imported products, and took into account import volumes, compositional nature of the products, results from previous monitoring, geographical origin of samples, and information available in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). This report concerns samples imported to Norway in 2018.

Fresh sample were directly shipped to IMR and frozen samples were stored frozen in the BIPs until shipment in the frozen state to IMR for analysis. Upon arrival, samples were registered at the IMR sample reception unit, each sample photographed, and relevant information registered in a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The microbiological assay was carried out prior to all other sample handling. The sample was then further prepared for analyses and split in sub-samples (aliquots) for the different assays and analytical methods.

In general, the edible part of the samples for human consumption was selected for analyses, according to a manual with specific instructions for each kind of sample. For species where a legal maximum level was defined, the tissue specified in the regulation was selected. The analytical methods and procedures used were accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard, unless otherwise specified. A summary of the chemical analytical methods, accreditation status and their performance data are listed in Annex 2.

The evaluations of the analytical data in the report is based primarily on the EU maximum levels (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 2006/1881, summed up in Annex 3 of this report; Commission Regulation (EU) No. 2073/2005, 37/2010 and 1019/2013) and EU recommendations. The maximum levels provide a legal framework for trade. For undesirables with no maximum level in place, the reference basis selected for the discussion/ interpretation was published opinions or food safety evaluation from scientific expert committees (when available), or the analytical range commonly observed for this undesirable in seafood from pristine or semi-pristine waters.

3 - Results and discussion

A total of 122 samples from the NFSA at Norwegian BIPs, were examined by a selection of methods for microorganisms, parasites and undesirable chemical species as shown in the table below. Data tables are presented in Annex 1. Method performance data are listed in Annex 2. A summary of EU maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs are listed in Annex 3.

Samples and assays included in the Norwegian veterinary border control of seafood 2018
 FishCrustaceansCephalopodsBivalvesFeed/ flourMarine OilsProcessed seafoodTotal number
Microorganisms4216 131032104
Chemical spoilage indicators17     421
Nematodes37     340
Pharmaceuticals56    213
Undesirable elements32174 1102589
Halogenated POPs21    5228
Pesticides8    5215
PAH      11

3.1 - Microbiology

The detailed results from the microbiological examinations are listed in Annex 1 (Table 1). A total of 104 samples were examined for microorganisms by a range of assays.

Incubation test and plate count for nine canned seafood products showed that these products were sterile.

Fifty samples were analysed for the presence of quality reducing H2S-producing seafood spoiling bacteria. Of these, five samples had 1000 or more cfu/g. These samples included three samples of Yellowfin tuna, two from Sri Lanka and one from the Maldives. The two remaining samples were one sample of Yellowtail from Australia, and one sample of Eastern oysters from Canada.

One sample of Eastern Oysters from Canada was examined for E. coli by the Donovan method as specified by EU, and < 18 bacteria/100 gram sample material was found (result not shown in table).

Fifty-nine samples were analysed for coliforms by the 3M TM Petrifilm method, and numbers above the detection level of 10 cfu/g were found in two samples. One sample of Yellowfin tuna imported from the Maldives had counts of 310 coliforms/g, and a sample of Pacific cod fillet imported from Thailand had 60 coliforms/g. The same two samples also showed high counts of thermotolerant coliform bacteria (560 and 60 cfu/g respectively). All results for the determination of thermotolerant coliforms by the 3M TM Petrifilm method (94 samples in total), except the two samples mentioned, were below the detection limit of 10 cfu/g.

Twenty-five samples were analysed for the presence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus, and all were under the levels of detection (100 cfu/g). Thirty samples were analysed for the presence of anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria, and one sample of shrimp imported from Canada had counts of 1000 cfu/g. Bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae were under the detection limit in the nine samples examined, except one sample of feed imported from Chile which contained 10 cfu/g.

Sixty samples were analysed for the presence of enterococci, and two samples had 100 cfu/g, which is the detection limit. These were one sample of Yellowfin tuna from Vietnam, and one of Pacific cod from Thailand.

Fifty-seven samples were analysed for L. monocytogenes and the bacterium was detected qualitatively in one sample of Pacific cod from Thailand, and in one sample of Atlantic herring from Norway. The sample of Pacific cod was further examined quantitatively, and the number of L. monocytogenes was found to be below the detection limit of 10 cfu/g. The sample of Norwegian herring was exported to Egypt but rejected due to limited storage space at the arrival destination, and was subsequently returned to Norway where it was examined.

No pathogens in the genus Salmonella (n=95 samples) were detected. Vibrio sp. was qualitatively detected in two of twenty-one analysed samples, one of whole, headless scampi from Vietnam, and one sample of peeled, headless scampi from India. The strains isolated from these two samples were sent to NMBU in Oslo for further characterisation and identified as V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus respectively. The V. cholerae isolate did not possess cholera toxin producing genes.

The presence of yeast and moulds were examined in ten samples. Yeast was detected in four samples, in two samples of feed from Chile (2000 and 18000 cfu/g), in one sample of dried Yellow Stripe Trevally from Thailand (1400 cfu/g), and in Migas from China (400 cfu/g). Mould was detected in two samples, the same dried Yellow Stripe Trevally from Thailand (2200 cfu/g), and in Migas from China (100 cfu/g) as the yeast was detected in (not shown in table).

3.2 - Parasites

Parasitological examinations were carried out on fourty fish samples, some of which were processed seafood products (Table 2). Nematodes were found in nine of them (22.5%). The fish were imported frozen; hence the nematodes were dead and not infective at the time of analysis. However, allergic symptoms may be triggered in sensitive individuals from dead as well as live nematodes. The highest numbers of nematodes (21), were found in a sample of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) imported from the Russian federation.

3.3 - Drug residues and dyes

Thirteen samples originating from aquaculture were analysed for residues of prohibited veterinary medicines (unauthorised dyes and antibacterial agents) in 2018. The analysis included the dye compounds crystal violet (CV), leuco crystal violet (LCV), malachite green (MG), leuco malachite green (LMG), brilliant green (BG), and the antibacterial agents chloramphenicol and nitrofuran metabolites. None unauthorised dyes were detected in any of the analysed samples, nor were any traces of chloramphenicol or nitrofuranes found. Details of analysed samples are given in Table 3 (unauthorised dyes) and Table 4 (antibacterial agents).

3.4 - Chemical spoilage indicators

The chemical spoilage indicator histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN)was examined in a total of twenty-nine samples, with nineteen samples analysed for each of them (Table 5). All results were compliant. The two highest histamine values of 20 and 30 mg/kg ww were found in samples of Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens). The highest TVBN value of 32.8 mg/100g ww, was found in a sample of Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

3.5 - Undesirable trace elements

The concentrations of the elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were examined in 89 samples, selected by criteria intended to maximize the probability of finding non-compliant concentrations. The analytical data are listed in Table 6.

In seafood, arsenic is mainly present as organo-metal chemical species of low toxicity, such as arsenobetaine and arsenolipids. This characteristic of marine foods set them apart from foods of terrestrial origin, in which toxic inorganic arsenic species give a significant contribution to the elemental arsenic concentration. Thus, no relevant maximum level on elemental As was in place for the samples analysed. The observed values for elemental As were mostly within the range occasionally observed in seafood from pristine waters. However, two samples of Pandalus shrimp from the Russian Federation, were measured with relatively high concentrations of 140 and 170 mg/kg ww.

A sample of canned sardine in oil, Sardinella longiceps, from the Philippines, exhibited a Cd value of 0.1 mg/kg ww. This value is assumed to be above its maximum level considering that the analysed food sample had been processed. The listed NHC samples (not intended for human consumption), values were measured up to 0.7 mg/kg ww. The seafood maximum limit does not apply. For a basis of value interpretation: the highest maximum level for elemental Cd in food is 1.0 mg/kg ww (in kidney of bovine animals.)

A significant part of the elemental Hg in seafood is present in the organic form of methylmercury, a compound with a documented toxic character. Thus, there are maximum levels in place for elemental Hg in seafood, but not specifically for the methylmercury species (EU, 2006) (Annex 3). However, all methylmercury  is measured as part of the total elemental mercury concentration. A frozen fillet sample of Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares imported from Vietnam exceeded the maximum Hg level of 1.0 mg/kg ww with a measured value of 1.5 mg/kg ww.

For lead, one sample of small crabs from Thailand (Sesarma mederi), was measured to 0.69 mg/kg ww. The maximum level applies to “muscle meat from the limbs and abdomen” or to whole animals if the are intended to be eaten whole (EU,2006, footnote 25), which we assumed for this sample. Thus, the whole crabs were analysed. The measured value was then slightly above the maximum level.

3.6 - Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

A selection of the most relevant samples were analysed for dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), also referred to as: EU-PCB6 or “indicator” PCBs. Also included were polybrominated flame-retardants (PBDEs), chlorinated pesticides and PAHs. Annex 3 provides a summary of the most relevant maximum levels.

3.6.1 - Dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Bifenyls (PCBs)

Table 7 lists the sum values of PCB, dioxins and furans, in terms of the summed dioxin like PCBs (DL-PCBs), the summed non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and the summed PCDDs and PCDFs, for each of the analysed samples. The maximum levels are defined in terms of upper bound sum-parameters (EU, 2006, footnote 32; EU, 2011) except for the sum-parameter NDL-PCBs which is the summed analytical values in the ng/g w.w. scale. The other sum-parameters are measured in the TEQ pg/g w.w. scale (toxic equivalents): in effect summing toxicities rather than their analytical concentrations, as specified in the regulation (EC) 1881/2006 (EU, 2006).


One Atlantic cod liver sample stood out with high values of sum DL-PCBs compared to the listed fillet values. However, the value was compliant to the fish liver maximum level. One sample of fish oil from Turkey, 2018-539/1 was measured to 2.6 and 7.4 pg/g ww (TEQ), UB LOQ for the sum of PCDD/DFs and for the total sum of dioxins and DL-PCBs respectively. These values are non-compliant regarding the maximum levels.

3.6.2 - Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs or BDEs)

BDEs are flame-retardant compounds found in plastics, textiles, electronic castings and circuitry. As these products age and eventually are discarded, the PBDEs finds their way into the environment and from there, into biota and into food and feed. The EU recommends a monitoring of the BDE compound class in food (EU, 2014). However, no maximum limits have been established in food. EFSA performed a risk assessment of BDEs in food in 2011 (EFSA CONTAM Panel, 2011). They concluded that the current dietary exposures of BDE-47, -153 and -209 did not raise health concerns. However, the current dietary exposure of BDE-99 was labelled a potential health concern. The data for individual BDE congeners (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183) and their upper bound sum (BDE7) for the twenty-eight samples are listed in Table 8. All the measured values were within a range occasionally observed in seafood from pristine waters.

3.6.3 - Organochlorine pesticides

Organochlorine pesticides are legacy compounds, previously used for pest control in agriculture. A number of these compounds have for years been banned from use by international treaties. Due to a history of extensive use, they are characterised by a ubiquitous presence in the environment and in food chains. Presently, low levels of these compounds still find their way into the human diet. Concentration of concern may be found in samples from local hot spots, reflecting historical contamination: These compounds are also found in freshwater species, reflecting a history of agricultural impact.

No less then thirty organochlorine pesticides compounds (listed in Annex 2 together with their corresponding LOQ) were measured in fifteen samples. Most of these compounds could not be quantified (all values < LOQ) in any sample. The values for compounds found in quantity (value > LOQ) in two or more of the samples are listed in Table 9a and 9b. The highest values were found for compounds in the DDT family, with a maximum of 13 ng/g ww for p,p'-DDT, and 12 ng/g ww for beta-HCH (hexachloro-hexane), both found in the same anchoveta oil from China.

3.6.4 - Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

PAH-compounds are generated from incomplete combustion of organic matter. In food processing PAHs may be formed from over-heating, and they find their way into smoked products from the smoking process. Bivalves can be contaminated from environmental PAH pollution adsorbed to water-suspended particles when these are ingested by the bivalve. There is a high number of compounds in this class. A few of them exhibit food safety issues: Maximum levels are in place for bivalves and smoked products (Annex 3); for Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alone, as well as for the lower bound sum (LB-sum) (EU, 2006) of four selected PAH compounds; BaP, Benzo(a) anthracene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene (LB-sum PAH4).

Only one sample was selected for PAH analysis, a smoked mackerel sample. Twenty individual PAH compounds were measured. Only the PAH data associated with a maximum level are listed. In this sample the measured values were below the limit of detection, and thus below the maximum levels.

4 - Conclusion

In total 122 samples, collected by the official staff at the Norwegian Border Inspection Posts of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, were examined for selected chemical, microbiological and/or parasitological undesirables in 2018.

The results for microbiological quality parameters and indicator organisms for faecal contamination generally showed low numbers in the 104 examined samples. However, higher counts were found in some samples. One sample of Yellowfin tuna imported from the Maldives had 310 coliforms/g and 560 thermotolerant coliform/g, and one sample of Pacific cod imported from Thailand had 60 coliforms/g and 60 thermotolerant coliform/g.

Further, five samples had 1000 or higher cfu/g of quality reducing H2S-producing seafood spoiling bacteria. These samples included three samples of Yellowfin tuna, two from Sri Lanka and one from the Maldives, as well as one sample of Yellowtail from Australia, and one sample of Eastern oysters from Canada.

L. monocytogenes was detected qualitatively in one sample of Pacific cod from Thailand, however, further quantitative examination showed that the number of bacteria was below the detection limit of 10 cfu/g. L. monocytogenes was also detected in one sample of Norwegian herring exported to Egypt and re-imported to Norway. No samples had pathogens in the genera Salmonella. Enterobacteriaceae was detected in one sample of feed imported from Chile.

Ten samples were examined for the presence of yeast and moulds. Their presence was detected in four and two samples respectively. Yeast was found in two samples of feed from Chile (2000 and 18000 cfu/g), in one sample of dried Yellow Stripe Trevally from Thailand (1400 cfu/g), and in Migas from China (400 cfu/g). Mould was detected in the same dried Yellow Stripe Trevally from Thailand (2200 cfu/g), and in Migas from China (100 cfu/g) as the yeast was detected in.

Parasitological examinations were carried out on fourty fish samples. Nematodes were found in nine of them (22.5%). The fish were frozen when imported. Hence the nematodes were dead and not infective at the time of analysis. However, also dead nematodes can trigger allergic symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Thirteen samples, originating from global aquaculture were examined for residues of selected prohibited pharmaceuticals. The examination included the dye compounds crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, malachite green, leuco malachite green and brilliant green. And also chloramphenicol and nitrofuran metabolites. No unauthorised dyes, nor residues of prohibited antibacterial agents were detected.

The chemical spoilage indicators were examined in twenty-nine samples. All results were compliant with their maximum levels.

The undesirable trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, were measured in 89 samples. With respect to cadmium, a sample of canned sardine in oil from the Philippines exhibited a value of 0.1 mg/kg ww, which is above its maximum level. One sample of small crabs from Thailand should be noted: Assuming the crabs were intended to be consumed whole, the measured lead concentration was slightly above their maximum level. A frozen fillet sample of yellowfin tuna imported from Vietnam with a value of 1.5 mg/kg ww exceeded the maximum mercury level. There is no maximum level for for arsenic in seafood, reflecting the low toxicity of its marine chemical molecular species. The measured elemental arsenic values were within a range commonly observed in seafood.

Concerning the Chlorinated POP compounds, twenty-eight samples were analysed for dioxins and furans, for PCBs, including the twelve dioxin like PCBs, the six EU selected non-dioxin like PCBs, and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers. One sample of fish oil from Turkey was non-compliant with its maximum levels. The remaining values were within the ranges commonly found in seafood.

Fifteen samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides. A majority of the 30 different pesticides could not be detected or quantified in any of the samples. The highest quantifiable values were found for some compounds in the DDT family, and for beta-HCH, both with a maximum in an anchoveta oil imported from China.

Regarding PAHs, One sample was analysed in 2018. It was compliant with its maximum levels.

5 - References

FOR-2015-11-30-1347. Forskrift om gjennomføring av forordning (EF) nr. 136/2004 om fastsettelse av fremgangsmåtene for veterinærkontroller ved EØS grensekontrollstasjoner ved import av produkter fra tredjestater. https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2005-11-30-1347.

EFSA CONTAM Panel. (2011). Scientific opinion on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in food. EFSA Journal, 9(5), 2156.

EU. (2004). Commission Regulation (EC) No 136/2004 of 22 January 2004 laying down procedures for veterinary checks  at Community border inspection posts on products imported from third countries. Official Journal of the European Union, 21(L21/11), 11-23.

EU. (2006). Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, 49(L364), 5-24.

EU. (2011). Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011 of 2 December 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union, 320(L320), 18-23.

EU. (2014). Commission Recommendation of 3 March 2014 on the monitoring of traces of brominated flame retardants in food. Official Journal of the European Union, 65(L65), 39-40.

6 - ANNEX 1: Data tables

Table 1. Microbiological examination, n=104.

Abbreviations: n.d.: not detected; D: detected; n.a.: not available; TNC: Too numerous to count (>108); CFU: Colony forming units; H2SPB: H2S producing bacteria; PC: Plate count, Ent.: Enterobacteriaceae.

 

Aerobe PC (cfu/g) agar method

Indicator organisms (cfu/g) by agar method

Faecal indicator organisms (cfu/g) by agar method

Specific pathogens

30°C

20°C

Entero-coccus

Coag. pos. Staphylo-coccus

Sulph.-red. bact.

Ent.

Coli-forms

Thermo-tolerant coliforms

Listeria mono-cytogenes

Salmo-nella

Vibrio

Aerobes

PC

H2SPB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Journal No.

Origin

Product

Scientific name

Sample material

Incu-bation test

/g

/g

/g

/g

/g

/g

/g

/g

/g

/25 g

/25 g

/20 g

2018-140/1

JAPAN (JPN)

Yellowtail

Seriola spp

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-141/1

JAPAN (JPN)

Yellowtail

Seriola spp

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-142/1

SRI LANKA (LKA)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-143/1

MALDIVES (MDV)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-176/1

THAILAND (THA)

Flour

Unknown

Shrimp powder

 

3000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-229/1

MAURITANIA (MRT)

Oil

Unknown

Fish oil

 

 

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-242/1

CANADA (CAN)

Lobster

Homarus spp

White meat

 

 

2000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-279/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

5000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-280/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

10000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-282/1

SRI LANKA (LKA)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

245000

7000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-293/1

MALDIVES (MDV)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

156000

1000

< 100

 

 

 

310

560

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-313/1

CHINA (CN)

Processed seafood product

Nemipterus bleekeri

Surimi

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-314/1

CHINA (CN)

Processed seafood product

Litopenaeus vannamei

Schrimp, boild, battered

 

43000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-417/1

CANADA (CAN)

Pandalus shrimp

Pandalus spp

Whole

 

2000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-419/1

CANADA (CAN)

Pandalus shrimp

Pandalus spp

Whole

 

25000

 

 

 

< 100

1000

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-539/1

TURKEY (TUR)

Oil

Engraulis encrasiolus

Fish oil

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-556/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Gutted, without head

 

 

23000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-558/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Gutted, without head

 

 

4000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-619/1

CHILE (CHL)

Feed

Engraulis ringens

Feed

 

2000

 

 

 

 

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-620/1

CHILE (CHL)

Feed

Engraulis ringens, Strangomera bentincki

Feed

 

18000

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-621/1

SRI LANKA (LKA)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

2110000

1300000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-688/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Gutted, without head

 

 

28000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-689/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

11000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-696/1

AUSTRALIA (AUS)

Yellowtail

Seriola lalandi

Muscle/Skin

 

 

22000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-774/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Fillet

 

 

8000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-776/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Gutted, without head

 

 

12000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-823/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Whiteleg shrimp

Penaeus vannamei Boone

Peeled schrimp

 

 

1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-861/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Greenland halibut

Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

Fillet

 

 

35000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-873/1

AUSTRALIA (AUS)

Yellowtail

Seriola spp

Muscle

 

 

440000

104000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-987/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Fillet

 

 

18000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-988/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

3000

< 1000

100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1039/1

NEW ZEALAND (NZL)

Flour

Euphasiacea sp.

Krill powder

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1054/1

CHINA (CN)

Oil (Anchovy)

Engraulis ringens

Oil

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1067/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Haddock

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

Fillet

 

 

14000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1068/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Liver

 

 

220000

< 1000

< 100

 

< 100

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1069/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic halibut

Hippoglossus hippoglossus

Fillet

 

 

85000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1071/1

UNITED STATES (USA)

Processed seafood product

Theragra chalcogramma

Surimi of pollock

 

14000

 

 

 

< 100

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1072/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Brown crab

Cancer pagurus

White meat

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1074/1

NEW ZEALAND (NZL)

Processed seafood product

Macruronus novaezelandiae

Surimi of hoki

 

59000

 

 

 

< 100

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1075/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1076/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed seafood product

Rastrelliger brachysoma

Whole, steamed

 

3000

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1080/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Scampi

Litopenaeus vannamei

Schrimp, peeled, boiled

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1081/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Scampi

Penaeus vannamei

Whole, headless

 

 

18000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

det.

2018-1084/1

CHINA (CHN)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

8000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1085/1

CHINA (CHN)

Saithe

Pollachius virens

Muscle

 

 

11000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1086/1

INDIA (IND)

Scampi

Litopenaeus vannamei

Schrimp, peeled, headless

 

 

113000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

det.

2018-1087/1

THAILAND (TH)

Processed seafood product

Gadus macrocephalus

Fillet/muscle battered, fried

 

< 1000

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1088/1

THAILAND (THA)

Mangrove crab

Sesarma mederi

Salted

 

 

3000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1089/1

THAILAND (THA)

Yellow Stripe Trevally

Selaroides leptolepsis

Dried

 

1990000

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

< 10

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1116/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned tuna in water

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1117/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned tuna in sunflower oil

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1118/1

PHILIPPINES (PHL)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned tuna in water

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1119/1

PHILIPPINES (PHL)

Processed seafood product

Chanos chanos

Canned milkfish

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1120/1

PHILIPPINES (PHL)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1121/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned tuna, curried

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1122/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned tuna, mexican flavour

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1123/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed tuna

Katsuwonis pelamis

Canned tuna in sunflower oil

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-1453/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed seafood product

Gadus macrocephalus

Fillet/muscle battered, fried

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1455/1

UNITED STATES (USA)

Processed seafood product

Theragra chalcogramma

Surimi

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1458/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Processed seafood product

Cancer spp.

Claw meat

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1460/1

CANADA (CAN)

American lobster

Homarus americanus

White meat

 

1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1461/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed seafood product

Gadus macrocephalus

Fillet/muscle battered, fried

 

 

3000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1463/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Scampi

Litopenaeus vannamei

Whole, headless

 

 

2000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1466/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Scampi

Litopenaeus vannamei

Schrimp, peeled, boiled

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1488/1

PERU (PER)

Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Fillet

 

 

112000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1489/1

CHINA (CHN)

Saithe

Pollachius virens

Fillet

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1492/1

CHINA (CHN)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

12000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1497/1

THAILAND (THA)

Flour

Acetes spp.

Schrimp flour

 

129000

 

 

 

 

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1503/1

CANADA (CAN)

Eastern oyster

Crassostrea virginica

Oyster

 

 

400000

220000

< 100

 

 

 

 

 

 

n.d.

 

2018-1541/1

MALDIVES (MDV)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1580/1

ALBANIA (ALB)

Northern shrimp

Pandalus borealis

Shells

 

2000

 

 

 

 

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1581/1

CHINA (CHN)

Alaska pollock (clipfish)

Theragra chalcogramma

Fillet, dried, salted

 

< 1000

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

< 10

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1582/1

CHINA (CHN)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Migas

 

221800

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

< 10

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1584/1

CANADA (CAN)

Northern shrimp

Pandalus borealis

Whole

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1585/1

MOROCCO (MAR)

Oil

Unknown

Fiskeolje

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1586/1

MOROCCO (MAR)

Oil

Unknown

Fiskeolje

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1587/1

CHINA (CHN)

Alaska pollock (clipfish)

Theragra chalcogramma

Migas

 

< 1000

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

< 10

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1588/1

JAPAN (JPN)

Processed seafood product

Unknown

Surimi

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

 

< 10

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-1589/1

CHINA (CHN)

Atlantic halibut

Hippoglossus hippoglossus

Muscle

 

 

50000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1592/1

PHILIPPINES (PHL)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

5000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1643/1

NORWAY (NOR)

Atlantic herring

Clupea harengus

Whole

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

Påvist

n.d.

 

2018-1656/1

ARGENTINA (ARG)

Argentine red shrimp

Pleoticus muelleri

Schrinmp, Peeled

 

 

100000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1804/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

880000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1806/1

KOREA, REPUBLIC OF (KOR)

Pacific saury

Cololabis Saira

Whole

 

 

32000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-1837/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Processed seafood product

Caridea spp.

Schrimp, chili marianted

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-1840/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2058/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic herring

Clupea harengus

Fillet

 

 

12000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2122/1

CANADA (CAN)

American lobster

Homarus americanus

White meat

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-2123/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Processed seafood product

Penaeus vannamei

Schrimp, chili marinated

 

 

2000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-2125/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed seafood product

Gadus macrocephalus

Fishburger, fried, breaded

 

4000

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2126/1

THAILAND (THA)

Processed seafood product

Rastrelliger kanagurta

Steamed

 

< 1000

 

 

< 100

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2129/1

THAILAND (THA)

Pacific Cod

Gadus macrocephalus

Fillet

 

 

29000

< 1000

100

 

 

 

60

60

< 10

n.d.

 

2018-2132/1

VIET NAM (VNM)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2158/1

CHINA (CHN)

Nile tilapia

Oreochromis niloticus

Fillet

 

 

5000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2272/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Pandalus shrimp

Pandalus spp

Whole

 

6000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-2273/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Pandalus shrimp

Pandalus spp

Whole

 

187000

 

 

 

< 100

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

n.d.

2018-2284/1

PERU (PER)

Oil (Anchovy)

Engraulis ringens

Fish oil

 

15000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-2285/1

PERU (PER)

Oil (Anchovy)

Engraulis ringens

Fish oil

 

13000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-2286/1

PERU (PER)

Oil (Anchovy)

Engraulis ringens

Fish oil

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-2287/1

MOROCCO (MAR)

Oil

Unknown

Fish oil

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-2288/1

CHINA (CHN)

Oil (Anchovy)

Engraulis ringens

Fish oil

 

< 1000

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-2542/1

PHILIPPINES (PHL)

Processed seafood product

Sardinella longiceps

Sardines, canned

Negativ

< 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018-2553/1

TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA (TWN)

Pacific saury

Cololabis Saira

Whole

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-2554/1

TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA (TWN)

Pacific saury

Cololabis Saira

Whole

 

 

< 1000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-140/1

JAPAN (JPN)

Yellowtail

Seriola spp

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-141/1

JAPAN (JPN)

Yellowtail

Seriola spp

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-142/1

SRI LANKA (LKA)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-143/1

MALDIVES (MDV)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-176/1

THAILAND (THA)

Flour

Unknown

Shrimp powder

 

3000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-229/1

MAURITANIA (MRT)

Oil

Unknown

Fish oil

 

 

 

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 

2018-242/1

CANADA (CAN)

Lobster

Homarus spp

White meat

 

 

2000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

n.d.

2018-279/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

5000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-280/1

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Muscle

 

 

10000

< 1000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-282/1

SRI LANKA (LKA)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

245000

7000

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

< 10

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-293/1

MALDIVES (MDV)

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Muscle

 

 

156000

1000

< 100

 

 

 

310

560

n.d.

n.d.

 

2018-313/1

CHINA (CN)

Processed seafood product

Nemipterus bleekeri

Surimi

 

< 1000

 

 

 

< 100

 

 

 

< 10

 

n.d.

 


 Table 2. Nematodes, n=40.

Journal No.OriginProduct groupSpeciesScientific nameTissue# Nematodes
2018-142/1Sri LankaMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-143/1MaldivesMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-279/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle1
2018-280/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle0
2018-282/1Sri LankaMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-293/1MaldivesMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-556/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaGutted, without head4
2018-558/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaGutted, without head15
2018-621/1Sri LankaMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-688/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaGutted, without head21
2018-689/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle0
2018-696/1Russian federationMarine fishYellowtailSeriola lalandiMuscle0
2018-774/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle0
2018-776/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaGutted, without head8
2018-861/1Russian federationMarine fishGreenland halibutReinhardtius hippoglossoidesMuscle0
2018-873/1AustraliaMarine fishYellowtailSeriola sppMuscle0
2018-987/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle7
2018-988/1Viet NamMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-1067/1Russian federationMarine fishHaddockMelanogrammus aeglefinusMuscle0
2018-1069/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusMuscle2
2018-1075/1Viet NamMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-1076/1ThailandMarine fishShort mackerelRastrelliger brachysomaSmoked whole frozen0
2018-1084/1ChinaMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle0
2018-1085/1ChinaMarine fishSaithePollachius virensMuscle0
2018-1453/1ThailandMarine fishPacific codGadus macrocephalusPre-fried breaded muscle0
2018-1461/1ThailandMarine fishPacific codGadus macrocephalusPre-fried breaded muscle5
2018-1488/1PeruMarine fishRainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissMuscle0
2018-1489/1ChinaMarine fishSaithePollachius virensMuscle0
2018-1492/1ChinaMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle0
2018-1541/1MaldivesMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-1589/1ChinaMarine fishAtlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusMuscle0
2018-1592/1PhilippinesMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-1804/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle0
2018-1840/1Viet NamMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-2058/1Russian federationMarine fishAtlantic herringClupea harengusMuscle1
2018-2129/1ThailandMarine fishPacific CodGadus macrocephalusMuscle0
2018-2132/1Viet NamMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle0
2018-2158/1ChinaMarine fishNile tilapiaOreochromis niloticusMuscle0
2018-2553/1Taiwan, Province of ChinaMarine fishPacific sauryCololabis sairaWhole0
2018-2554/1Taiwan, Province of ChinaMarine fishPacific sauryCololabis sairaWhole0

Table 3. Residues of prohibited veterinary medicines, Dyes, n=13.

n.d.: not detected, CV: crystal violet, LCV: leuco crystal violet, MG: malachite green LMG: leuco malachite green, BG: brilliant green
Journal No.OriginGroupSpecies/ PresentationScientific nameTissueCV LOD: 0.3 µg/kgLCV LOD: 0.15µg/kgMG LOD: 0.15µg/kgLMG LOD: 0.15µg/kgBG LOD: 0.15 µg/kg
2018-140/1JapanAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-141/1JapanAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-696/2AustraliaAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-873/1AustraliaAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1080/1VietnamAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1081/1VietnamAquacultureScampiPenaeus vannameiWholen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1086/1IndiaAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1119/1PhilippinesAquacultureMilkfishChanos sp.Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1463/1VietnamAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiWholen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1466/1VietnamAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1488/1PeruAquacultureRainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissFillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-2123/1VietnamAquacultureProcessed productLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-2158/1ChinaAquacultureNile tilapiaOreochromis niloticusFillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.

Table 4. Residues of prohibited veterinary medicines, Antibacterial agents, Chloramphenicol and nitrofuran metabolites, n=13.

n.d.: not detected, CAM: chloramphenicol, AHD: 1-amino-hydantoin, AOZ: 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AMOZ: 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone, SEM: semicarbazide
Journal No.OriginGroupProduct/ PresentationScientific nameTissueCAM LOD: 0.25 µg/kgAHD LOD: 0.6 µg/kgAOZ LOD: 0.5 µg/kgAMOZ LOD: 0.4 µg/kgSEM LOD: 0.5 µg/kg
2018-140/1JapanAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-141/1JapanAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-696/2AustraliaAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-873/1AustraliaAquacultureYellowtailSeriola sp.Fillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1080/1VietnamAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1081/1VietnamAquacultureScampiPenaeus vannameiWholen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1086/1IndiaAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1119/1PhilippinesAquacultureMilkfishChanos sp.Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1463/1VietnamAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiWholen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1466/1VietnamAquacultureScampiLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-1488/1PeruAquacultureRainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissFillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-2123/1VietnamAquacultureProcessed productLitopenaeus vannameiMuscle, peeledn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2018-2158/1ChinaAquacultureNile tilapiaOreochromis niloticusFillet /Musclen.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.

Table 5. Selected chemical spoilage indicators, Histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN).

Journal No.OriginSpeciesScient. nameTissue/productHistamine n=19 mg/kg w.w.TVBN n=19 mg/100g w.w.
2018-140/1JapanYellowtailSeriola sp.Muscle<516.4
2018-141/1JapanYellowtailSeriola sp.Muscle<515.6
2018-142/1Sri LankaYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<525.0
2018-143/1MaldivesYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<528.0
2018-282/1Sri LankaYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<532.8
2018-293/1MaldivesYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<524.2
2018-313/1ChinaDelasa threadfin breamNemipterus bleekeriSurimi Crab sticks-4
2018-314/1ChinaScampiLitopenaeus vannamei Panned muscle-4.9
2018-619/1ChilePeruvian anchovyEngraulis ringensPellets for feed NHC20-
2018-620/1ChilePeruvian anchovyEngraulis ringensPellets for feed NHC30-
2018-621/1Sri LankaYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<522.4
2018-861/1Russian federationGreenland halibutReinhardtius hippoglossoidesMuscle-10.0
2018-873/1AustraliaYellowtailSeriola sp.Muscle-17.0
2018-988/1Viet NamYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<515.1
2018-1069/1Russian federationHalibutHippoglossus hippoglossusMuscle-8.7
2018-1075/1Viet NamYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle-21.0
2018-1076/1ThailandShort mackerelRastrelliger brachysomaSmoked whole frozen-23.1
2018-1116/1Viet NamTunaKatsuwonus pelamisCanned muscle in water<5-
2018-1117/1ThailandTunaKatsuwonus pelamisCanned muscle<5-
2018-1118/1PhilippinesTunaKatsuwonus pelamisCanned muscle in water<5-
2018-1121/1ThailandTunaKatsuwonus pelamisCanned muscle with spices<5-
2018-1122/1ThailandTunaKatsuwonus pelamisCanned muscle with spices<5-
2018-1123/1ThailandTunaKatsuwonus pelamisMuscle in oil<5-
2018-1488/1PeruRainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissMuscle-17.9
2018-1497/1ThailandAcetesAcetes sp.Prawn meal<5-
2018-1541/1MaldivesYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<522.5
2018-1592/1PhilippinesYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle<521.4
2018-1643/1Reimported from Egypt, Norwegian originHerringClupea harengusWhole<519.2
2018-1806/1Republic of KoreaPacific sauryCololabis sairaWhole-16.0

Table 6. Elemental concentration of undesireable elments, n=89.

Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb). (mg/kg ww).
NHC” = “Not for human consumption”, different maximum levels then apply.
Journal No.OriginGroupProductScientific nameTissue/ variantAsCdHgPb
2018-671/1ARGENTINACephalopodArgentine shortfin squidIllex argentinus Muscle0.710.130.005< .005
2018-671/2ARGENTINACephalopodArgentine shortfin squidIllex argentinus Muscle0.770.160.0050.021
2018-673/1ARGENTINACephalopodArgentine shortfin squidIllex argentinus Muscle0.710.070.005< .005
2018-673/2ARGENTINACephalopodArgentine shortfin squidIllex argentinus Muscle0.530.240.005< .006
2018-1460/1CANADACrustaceanAmerican lobsterHomarus americanusMuscle4.80.150.060.02
2018-2122/1CANADACrustaceanAmerican lobsterHomarus americanusMuscle9.40.010.140.007
2018-1656/1ARGENTINACrustaceanArgentine red shrimpPleoticus muelleri Peeled0.620.070.0060.011
2018-242/1CANADACrustaceanLobsterHomarus sppMuscle7.20.010.070.02
2018-1088/1THAILANDCrustaceanMangrove crabSesarma mederiMuscle0.420.020.0170.69
2018-1584/1CANADACrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealisFillet140.040.0310.006
2018-417/2CANADACrustaceanPandalus shrimpPandalus sppPeeled8.10.230.07< .005
2018-419/2CANADACrustaceanPandalus shrimpPandalus sppPeeled8.60.220.05< .005
2018-2272/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONCrustaceanPandalus shrimpPandalus sppPeeled1700.140.04< .006
2018-2273/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONCrustaceanPandalus shrimpPandalus sppPeeled1400.130.03< .005
2018-1080/1VIET NAMCrustaceanScampiLipenaus vannameiPeeled0.15< .00070.0070.009
2018-1081/1VIET NAMCrustaceanScampiLipenaus vannameiPeeled0.180.0010.010.01
2018-1086/1INDIACrustaceanScampiLipenaus vannameiPeeled0.19< .00090.007< .005
2018-1463/1VIET NAMCrustaceanScampiLito Penaeus VannameiPeeled0.360.0010.010.01
2018-1466/1VIET NAMCrustaceanScampiLipenaus vannameiPeeled0.230.00090.0070.02
2018-823/1VIET NAMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BoonePeeled0.520.0010.006< .005
2018-1458/1VIET NAMCrustaceanProcessed seafood productCancer sppMuscle210.030.10.01
2018-2158/1CHINAFresh water fishNile tilapiaOreochromis niloticusFillet0.24< .0010.004< .005
2018-619/1CHILEMarine feed-NHCFeedEngraulis ringensPellets1.90.330.0120.10
2018-620/1CHILEMarine feed-NHCFeedn.a.Pellets1.50.130.0210.13
2018-2580/1JAPANMarine feed-NHCFlourn.a.Flour2.90.660.110.11
2018-1492/1CHINAMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet4.60.0010.02< .004
2018-1068/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONMarine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaLiver5.40.160.009< .02
2018-1069/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONMarine fishAtlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusFillet9.3< .00080.08< .004
2018-1589/1CHINAMarine fishAtlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusFillet2.1< .0010.09< .005
2018-2058/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONMarine fishAtlantic herringClupea harengusFillet20.050.07< .008
2018-861/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONMarine fishGreenland halibutReinhardtius hippoglossoidesFillet5.7< .0020.02< .008
2018-1067/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONMarine fishHaddockMelanogrammus aeglefinusFillet2.10.0010.03< .005
2018-2129/1THAILANDMarine fishPacific CodGadus macrocephalusFillet8.2< .00090.03< .005
2018-1488/1PERUMarine fishRainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissFillet0.27< .0010.006< .007
2018-1489/1CHINAMarine fishSaithePollachius virensFillet2.40.0010.08< .004
2018-142/1SRI LANKAMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet10.030.3< .006
2018-143/1MALDIVESMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.50.0090.22< .006
2018-282/1SRI LANKAMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.560.0070.21< .007
2018-293/1MALDIVESMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet10.030.17< .007
2018-621/1SRI LANKAMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet1.60.010.3< .006
2018-988/1VIET NAMMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.810.020.43< .006
2018-1075/1VIET NAMMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet2.10.0030.08< .006
2018-1541/1MALDIVESMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet10.010.36< .006
2018-1592/1PHILIPPINESMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet1.20.0070.16< .006
2018-1840/1VIET NAMMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.90.020.15< .006
2018-2132/1VIET NAMMarine fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet1.90.051.5< .006
2018-140/1JAPANMarine fishYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.41< .0020.16< .009
2018-141/1JAPANMarine fishYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.44< .0020.17< .008
2018-696/2AUSTRALIAMarine fishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFillet0.66< .0020.08< .008
2018-873/1AUSTRALIAMarine fishYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.45< .0020.07< .008
2018-1806/1KOREA, REPUBLICMarine fish-NHCPacific sauryCololabis SairaFillet3.30.080.09< .01
2018-2553/1TAIWANMarine fish-NHCPacific sauryCololabis SairaFillet2.60.10.041< .009
2018-2554/1TAIWANMarine fish-NHCPacific sauryCololabis SairaFillet2.90.120.05< .01
2018-539/1TURKEYMarine Oil-HCOilEngraulis encrasicolusOil7.3< .004< .0040.03
2018-1054/1CHINAMarine Oil-HCOilEngraulis ringensOil< .009< .005< .005< .02
2018-1585/1MOROCCOMarine Oil-HCOiln.a.Oil1.4< .005< .005< .02
2018-1586/1MOROCCOMarine Oil-HCOiln.a.Oil6< .004< .004< .02
2018-2284/1PERUMarine Oil-HCOilEngraulis ringensOil7.1< .0040.01< .02
2018-2285/1PERUMarine Oil-HCOilEngraulis ringensOil7.3< .0050.04< .02
2018-2286/1PERUMarine Oil-HCOilEngraulis ringensOil6.90.0210.04< .02
2018-2287/1MOROCCOMarine Oil-HCOilPescaOil3< .0040.007< .02
2018-2288/1CHINAMarine Oil-HCOilEngraulis ringens,Oil0.01< .005< .005< .02
2018-229/1MAURITANIAMarine Oil-NHCOiln.a.Oil12< .004< .004< .02
2018-1497/1THAILANDPrawn flour-HCFlourn.a.Flour130.30.030.25
2018-2565/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.830.0080.03< .02
2018-2566/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.660.020.07< .02
2018-2583/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaKatsuwonus pelamisFillet0.860.010.03< .005
2018-2584/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaKatsuwonus pelamisFillet1.40.020.04< .006
2018-2585/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaKatsuwonus pelamisFillet1.50.020.04< .007
2018-2586/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.920.010.02< .02
2018-2587/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaKatsuwonus pelamisFillet1.10.020.04< .02
2018-2588/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaKatsuwonus pelamisFillet0.360.010.06< .02
2018-2591/1THAILANDProcessed Marine fishProcessed tunaKatsuwonus pelamisFillet20.020.07< .006
2018-314/1CHINAProcessed prawnsProcessed seafood productn.a.Peeled0.130.0030.009< .01
2018-1837/1VIET NAMProcessed prawnsProcessed seafood productn.a.Peeled0.210.0010.004< .005
2018-2123/1VIET NAMProcessed prawnsProcessed seafood productPenaeus vannameiPeeled0.230.0020.0070.006
2018-1076/1THAILANDProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productn.a.Fillet0.950.020.0090.02
2018-1453/1THAILANDProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productGadus macrocephalusFillet3.80.0040.019< .009
2018-1455/1USAProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productTheragra chalcogrammaFillet1.50.0010.008< .004
2018-1461/1THAILANDProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productGadus macrocephalusFillet4.20.0020.03< .008
2018-1588/1JAPANProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productn.a.Fillet0.110.0020.023< .006
2018-2126/1THAILANDProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productRastrelliger kanagurtaFillet0.820.010.010.008
2018-2125/1THAILANDProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productGadus macrocephalusFishburger20.0030.05< .009
2018-2542/1PHILIPPINESProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productSardinella longicepsGutted2.50.100.02< .02
2018-2581/1MOROCCOProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productn.a.Gutted1.80.060.01< .02
2018-2582/1MOROCCOProcessed SeafoodProcessed seafood productn.a.Gutted1.70.0550.008< .02
2018-313/1CHINAProcessed seafood - SurimiProcessed seafood productn.a.Fillet0.0940.0060.020.02
2018-1071/1USASurimi-marin fishProcessed seafood productTheragra chalcogrammaFillet0.840.0020.01< .004
2018-1074/1NEW ZEALANDSurimi-marin fishProcessed seafood productMacruronus novaezelandiaeFillet1.3< .00090.16< .005
 Maximum value1700.71.50.7
 Second largest value1400.50.40.3

Table 7. Dioxins and PCBs, n=28. Dioxins (PCDD) + furans (PCDF), dioxin like PCBs (DLPCBC), and non-dioxinlike PCBs NDL-PCBs. (pg/g w.w. TEQ).

The analytical concentrations of 28 different compounds are summed as ”Toxic Equivalence values” (TEQ-values)9, to give three distinct (Upper bound) sum-parameters: Sum-PCDD+PCDF, sum DLPCBs and total TEQ sum. TEQ-values are provided in the pg/g (w/w) scale (pico-grams per gram in the naturally moist sample state). The indicator NDL-PCBs are provided as the Upper bound sum of their analytical concentrations (Not TEQ-values), in the µg/kg (w/w) scale.
Journal No.OriginProductScientific nameTissue/ sample typeSum DLPCBsPCDDs+ PCDFsTotal TEQSum NDL-PCBS
2018-1068/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONAtlantic codGadus morhuaLiver4.52.06.538
2018-1069/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONAtlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusFillet0.230.200.442.0
2018-861/1RUSSIAN FEDERATIONGreenland halibutReinhardtius hippoglossoidesFillet0.300.180.482.9
2018-1116/1VIET NAMProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.010.030.040.03
2018-1117/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.030.180.200.19
2018-1118/1PHILIPPINESProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.010.100.110.07
2018-1121/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.020.060.080.05
2018-1122/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.020.060.080.05
2018-1123/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet0.030.150.180.17
2018-1488/1PERURainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissFillet0.070.100.170.37
2018-142/1SRI LANKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.020.080.090.14
2018-143/1MALDIVESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.030.100.130.10
2018-282/1SRI LANKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.010.080.090.06
2018-293/1MALDIVESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.300.170.470.79
2018-621/1SRI LANKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.010.050.060.12
2018-988/1VIET NAMYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.010.030.030.06
2018-1075/1VIET NAMYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.010.080.080.05
2018-1541/1MALDIVESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.010.040.040.05
2018-140/1JAPANYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.430.300.733.0
2018-141/1JAPANYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.400.260.652.3
2018-873/1AUSTRALIAYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.330.160.492.3
2018-1119/1PHILIPPINESProcessed seafoodChanos sppFillet0.030.130.160.14
2018-539/1TURKEYOilEngraulis encrasicolusOil4.832.67.4025
2018-1054/1CHINAOilEngraulis ringensOil0.040.890.930.40
2018-1585/1MOROCCOOilOilOil1.760.682.4314
2018-1586/1MOROCCOOilOilOil1.720.482.2015
2018-229/1MAURITANIAOiln.a.Oil0.790.871.665.0
2018-1076/1THAILANDProcessed seafoodRastrelliger BrachysomaFillet0.170.230.411.3
 Maximum values4.82.67.438
 Second largest value4.52.06.525

Table 8. Selected Brominated Flame Retardants, PBDEs (µg/kg w.w.), n=28.

Journal No.OriginSpeciesScient. NameTissuePBDE-28PBDE-47PBDE-99PBDE-100PBDE-153PBDE-154PBDE-183UB Sum 7-PBDE
2018-1068/1RUSSIAN FEDERAT.Atlantic codGadus morhuaLiver0.151.910.50.150.49< .154.4
2018-1069/1RUSSIAN FEDERAT.Atlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusFillet0.0070.100.0020.020.0040.03< .0090.17
2018-861/1RUSSIAN FEDERAT.Greenland halibutReinhardtius hippoglossoidesFillet0.0070.100.0040.02< .0040.01< .020.15
2018-1116/1VIET NAMProcessed tunan.a.Fillet< .00040.003< .00070.001< .00070.001< .0030.009
2018-1117/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet< .0030.0050.008< .003< .005< .003< .020.05
2018-1118/1PHILIPPINESProcessed tunan.a.Fillet< .0010.002< .002< .001< .002< .001< .0080.02
2018-1121/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet< .00090.010.0080.002< .0020.001< .0060.02
2018-1122/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet< .00090.0030.004< .0009< .002< .0009< .0070.02
2018-1123/1THAILANDProcessed tunan.a.Fillet< .0030.481.20.220.120.12< .022.2
2018-1488/1PERURainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissFillet0.0020.020.0080.006< .0030.005< .010.06
2018-142/1SRI LANKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .0010.01< .0020.002< .0020.004< .0070.02
2018-143/1MALDIVESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .0010.00< .0020.001< .0020.002< .0070.02
2018-282/1SRI LANKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .00090.00< .002< .0009< .002< .0009< .0060.02
2018-293/1MALDIVESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet0.0020.030.0080.030.0040.032< .0080.11
2018-621/1SRI LANKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .0020.003< .003< .002< .003< .002< .0130.03
2018-988/1VIET NAMYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .00090.002< .002< .0009< .002< .0009< .0060.01
2018-1075/1VIET NAMYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .00080.001< .001< .0008< .001< .0008< .0050.01
2018-1541/1MALDIVESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .00080.002< .001< .0008< .001< .0008< .0060.01
2018-140/1JAPANYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.010.190.020.050.010.07< .020.37
2018-141/1JAPANYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.010.160.020.040.0080.070.020.32
2018-873/1AUSTRALIAYellowtailSeriola sppFillet0.010.260.070.060.020.04< .0160.47
2018-1119/1PHILIPPINESProcessed seafoodChanos sppFillet< .0020.020.0060.004< .0030.007< .0110.05
2018-539/1TURKEYOilEngraulis encrasicolusOil0.050.420.130.10< .040.12< .161.0
2018-1054/1CHINAOilEngraulis ringensOil< .0220.03< .037< .022< .04< .02< .070.24
2018-1585/1MOROCCOOiln.a.Oil< .0240.33< .040.06< .040.03< .170.69
2018-1586/1MOROCCOOiln.a.Oil< .0250.39< .0430.05< .043< .03< .180.76
2018-229/1MAURITAN.Oiln.a.Oil< .0230.220.070.03< .04< .020.030.43
2018-1076/1THAILANDProcessed seafoodn.a.Fillet< .0030.010.0060.005< .0050.007< .020.06
   Maximum value2.61.91.20.50.20.50.034.4
   Second largest2.00.480.20.20.10.10.022.2

Table 9a. Selected Chloro-pesticides, first pesticide table. (µg/kg w.w.), n=15.

Journal No.OriginSpeciesScient. NameTissueAlfa HCHbeta-HCHcis-Chlordanecis-Heptachlor epoxideDiel-drinHCBMirex

2018-2158/1

CHINA

Nile tilapia

Oreochromis niloticus

Fillet

< .2

< .2

< .07

< .1

< .1

< .3

< .07

2018-1589/1

CHINA

Atlantic halibut

Hippoglossus hippoglossus

Fillet

< .2

< .2

0.07

< .1

< .1

< .4

< .07

2018-2058/1

RUSSIA

Atlantic herring

Clupea harengus

Fillet

0.31

< .2

1.1

0.43

2.4

2.0

0.15

2018-1592/1

PHILIPPINES

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Fillet

< .2

< .2

< .07

< .1

< .1

< .3

< .07

2018-2132/1

VIET NAM

Yellowfin tuna

Thunnus albacares

Fillet

< .2

< .2

< .07

< .1

< .1

< .3

0.49

2018-1806/1

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Pacific saury

Cololabis Saira

Fillet

0.24

0.6

0.24

< .1

0.28

0.72

< .07

2018-2553/1

TAIWAN CHINA

Pacific saury

Cololabis Saira

Fillet

1.5

1.0

0.59

< .3

0.81

2.6

< .2

2018-2554/1

TAIWAN CHINA

Pacific saury

Cololabis Saira

Fillet

1.6

1.2

0.55

0.30

0.82

2.6

< .2

2018-2284/1

PERU

Oil

Engraulis ringens

Oil

< .3

0.87

< .3

< .4

1.8

2.4

< .3

2018-2285/1

PERU

Oil

Engraulis ringens

Oil

< .3

0.86

< .3

< .4

1.4

1.9

< .3

2018-2286/1

PERU

Oil

Engraulis ringens

Oil

< .3

0.73

0.29

< .4

1.7

2.4

< .3

2018-2287/1

MOROCCO

Oil

Pesca

Oil

< .3

< .3

0.65

0.68

3.5

3.6

< .3

2018-2288/1

CHINA

Oil

Engraulis ringens,

Oil

< 1

12

< 1

< 1.4

< 1.4

< 4.8

< 1

2018-2126/1

THAILAND

Processed seafood product

Rastrelliger kanagurta

Fillet

< .2

< .2

< .007

< .1

< .1

< .3

< .07

2018-2542/1

PHILIPPINES

Processed seafood product

Sardinella longiceps

Gutted

< .2

< .2

< .007

< .1

< .1

< .3

< .07

 

 

 

Maximum value

1.6

12

1.1

0.7

3.5

3.6

0.5


Table 9b. Selected Chloro-pesticides, second pesticide table. (µg/kg w.w.), n=15.

Journal No.OriginSpeciesScient. NameTissueo,p'-DDDo,p'-DDTp,p'-DDDp,p'-DDEp,p'-DDTToxaphene Parlar 50trans-Nonachlor
2018-2158/1CHINANile tilapiaOreochromis niloticusFillet< .07< .07< .07< .07< .07< .3< .03
2018-1589/1CHINAAtlantic halibutHippoglossus hippoglossusFillet< .07< .07< .070.25< .07< .30.15
2018-2058/1RUSSIAAtlantic herringClupea harengusFillet0.10< .071.66.90.515.32.0
2018-1592/1PHILIPPINESYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .07< .07< .07< .07< .07< .3< .03
2018-2132/1VIET NAMYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet< .07< .07< .070.560.11< .3< .03
2018-1806/1REPUBLIC OF KOREAPacific sauryCololabis SairaFillet0.110.100.250.600.120.410.22
2018-2553/1TAIWAN CHINAPacific sauryCololabis SairaFillet0.25< .20.530.84< .2< 10.36
2018-2554/1TAIWAN CHINAPacific sauryCololabis SairaFillet0.22< .20.520.80< .2< 10.39
2018-2284/1PERUOilEngraulis ringensOil< .3< .31.46.60.801.3< .1
2018-2285/1PERUOilEngraulis ringensOil< .3< .30.703< .3< 1.20.23
2018-2286/1PERUOilEngraulis ringensOil< .3< .30.976.70.70< 1.20.15
2018-2287/1MOROCCOOilPescaOil< .3< .30.733.1< .32.50.96
2018-2288/1CHINA)OilEngraulis ringens,Oil< 1.4< 3.8< 27.1113< 4.8< .5
2018-2126/1THAILANDProcessed seafood productRastrelliger kanagurtaFillet< .070.130.290.590.44< .3< .03
2018-2542/1PHILIPPINESProcessed seafood productSardinella longicepsGutted< .07< .07< .070.26< .07< .3< .03
   Maximum value0.20.11.611135.32.0

Table 10. Selected PAH compounds (µg/kg w.w.), n=1.

Journal No.Imported fromGroupSpeciesScient. nameTissueBaPLB Sum PAH4
2018-1076/1THAILANDProcessed seafood (steamed and Smoked)Short mackerelRastrelliger BrachysomaFish fillet< .050

7 - ANNEX 2: Method performance data

Table 11: A summary of the 2018 chemical analytical methods at IMR.

IMR=Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.

CompoundsMatrixMethod principleAnalytical method LOD in muscle (µg/kg w.w.)Analytical method LOQ (µg/kg w.w.)Level of actionLaboratory
Therapeutic agents and dyesChloramphenicolMuscleLC-MS/MS0.25-Presence (MRPL=0.3)IMR
3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.5-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
1-Aminohydrantoin (AHD)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.6-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
3-Amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.4-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
Semicarbazide (SEM)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.5-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
Malachite green (MG)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-Presence (MRPL=2.0)IMR
Leuco malachite green (LMG)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-Presence (MRPL=2.0)IMR
Crystal violet (CV)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-PresenceIMR
Leuco crystal violet (LCV)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-PresenceIMR
Brilliant green (BG)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-PresenceIMR
POPsPCDD and PCDF (dioxin and furan) congenersMuscleHRGC-HRMS-2*10-5-0.02 ng/kg1 TEQSee annex 3IMR
non-orto PCB congenersMuscleHRGC-MSMS-2*10-5-0.02 ng/kg1 TEQSee annex 3IMR
Mono-orto PCB congenersMuscleHRGC-MSMS-2*10-5-0.02 ng/kg1 TEQSee annex 3IMR
NDLPCB congenersMuscleHRGC-MSMS-0.005-0.03See annex 3IMR
PBDE-congenersMuscleHRGC-NCI/MS-0.0004-0.02n.a.IMR
PAH, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) SUM PAHSee annex 3GC-MS-0.05-0.4See Annex 3IMR
Chemical elementsPbMuscleICPMS-4-20See Annex 3IMR
CdMuscleICPMS-0.5-10See Annex 3IMR
AsMuscleICPMS-10-80See Annex 3IMR
HgMuscleICPMS-2-10See Annex 3IMR
Indicators of spoilageTVB-NMuscleCONWAY-0.6 mg(N)-IMR
HistamineMuscleHPLC-UV-5 mg/kg-IMR

Table 12: Chlorinated pesticides analysed with their corresponding limit of quantification (LOQ) as provided by sub-contractor
PesticideLOQ [µg/kg dw]PesticideLOQ [µg/kg dw]
alpha-Endosulfan1.04Pentachlorobenzene1.04
beta-Endosulfan0.27trans-Nonachlor1.28
Endosulfan sulphite0.27Dieldrin0.31
trans-Chlordane0.21Endrin0.63
cis-Chlordane0.21Aldrin0.21
Oxychlordane1.04Mirex0.21
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)1.04Toxaphene Parlar 261.04
alpha-HCH0.52Toxaphene Parlar 501.04
beta-HCH0.52Toxaphene Parlar 622.08
gamma-HCH (Lindane)0.52o,p'-DDD0.21
delta-HCH0.52o,p'-DDE0.21
Heptachlor0.21o,p'-DDT0.21
trans-Heptachlor epoxide0.63p,p'-DDD0.21
cis-Heptachlor epoxide0.31p,p'-DDE0.21
Octachlorstyrene0.10p,p'-DDT0.21

 

8 - ANNEX 3: Regulatory maximum levels

Table 13: A selection of regulatory maximum levels for contaminants in seafood from on EU Commission regulation no 1881/2006

Element or pollutantUnit of measure-mentMarin Fish Fillet1Some fish species Fillet1Wild caught Eel Fillet1Fresh water Fish Fillet1Smoked seafood productsFish liverCrusta-ceans: White meatBivalves and (smoked bivalves)2Cephalo-pods3Marine Oils HC4
Arsenic (As) - --------
Cadmium (Cd)mg/kg w.w.60.050.1-0.380.10.05*6,8-0.51.061.0-
Mercury (Hg) 0.51.01.00.5*6,80.50.50.560.5-
Lead (Pb) 0.30.30.30.3*6,8-0.51.561.0-
Sum of dioxins and furans5pg/g TEQ w.w. 63.53.53.53.5*6,8-3.53.563.51.75
Sum of dioxin like PCBs5----*6,8-----
Sum of dioxins. furans and dioxin like PCBs56.56.5106.5*6,8206.56.566.56
Sum of six NDLPCBs5 ng/g w.w.67575300125*6,82007575675200
PAH Benzo[a]pyreneμg/kg w.w. 6----2 - 56,8--5 (6)2-2
PAH4, sum of 4 PAH compounds7μg/kg w.w.6----12 - 306,8--30 (35)2-10
Based on Commission regulation 1881/2006, Commission Regulation 1259/2011 amending Regulation 1881/2006 and Commission regulation (EU) 835/2011 amending Regulation 1881/2006.
  • 1) When fish is intended to be eaten whole, the level should be applied to the whole product.
  • 2) Value in brackets concerns smoked bivalves.
  • 3) Without viscera.
  • 4) HC = Human consumption pg/g fat
  • 5) Upper bound sum calculation is assumed.
  • 6) Wet weight (w.w.); the concentration in a naturally moist sample. Values for dried or otherwise processed food should be transformed to w.w.
  • 7) Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene, assuming a lower bound sum calculation.
  • 8) Value change with different biological species