Monitoring programme for veterinary control on seafood products imported to Norway from third countries – Results from 2019

— In accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 136/2004, Annex II, Part 1

Sammendrag

This report summarises results from the ongoing monitoring programme for veterinary border control on seafood products imported to Norway from countries outside the EU and the European Economic Area from 2019. The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) carried out the analytical work on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), in cooperation with the personnel at the Norwegian Border Inspection Posts (BIP). We want to thank NFSA for very good cooperation during the conduct of this monitoring programme. An up to date risk assessment for different groups of imported products, made the basis for the sampling plans and the selection of analytical activities. The current trend of hazards, as reported in The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notification system, the compositional nature of the products and the annual import quantity of relevant products, was evaluated in this risk assessment. A total of 129 samples from the NFSA, collected at the BIPs, were examined by a selection of analytical methods and assays for microorganisms and undesirable chemical substances. The analytical data are listed in Annex 1 and are summarised below.

Microbiological analyses were performed on 94 samples. The microbiological quality parameters and indicator organisms for faecal contamination generally showed low numbers. However, higher counts were found in one sample of Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) imported from Sri Lanka, and in one sample of swim bladder, one sample sweet chili marinated prawns and one sample of purpleback squid, all imported from Vietnam. Further, Listeria monocytogenes was detected in low quantity in one sample of tilapia from China. No samples had pathogens in the genera Salmonella or Vibrio, whereas Enterobacteriaceae was detected in one sample of fish cakes imported from China. Ten samples were examined for the presence of mould and yeast. Their presence was detected in one sample of swim bladder from Vietnam, and one sample of Atlantic cod from China. Two samples were analysed and showed no presence of antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae. One sample of Pacific oysters was examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and norovirus and was found to be negative for both. Eight seafood samples originating from aquaculture were analysed for residues of prohibited veterinary medicines, unauthorised dyes and antibacterial agents. None of these were detected. Two samples were analysed for carbon monoxide and no indication for a treatment with CO was found. The chemical spoilage indicator histamine was examined in twenty-six samples and all results were compliant with the maximum levels.

Undesirable trace elements were measured in 116 samples and only one sample exceeded the maximum level. This was a sample of Obtuse barracuda (Sphyraena obtusata) from Sri Lanka with a mercury concentration of 0.78 mg/kg ww.
Thirty-one samples were analysed for the persistent organic pollutants dioxins/ furans and PCBs (DLPCBs and NDLPCBs), the PBDE class of compounds and all sample were compliant. The levels of PBDEs in thirty-one samples, were within a range commonly observed in seafood. For the PAH class of compounds, one sample was analysed, and found compliant with its maximum levels.

 

1 - Introduction

As a member of the European Economic Area (EEA), Norway is obliged to monitor the conformity of products imported to the EEA area. As part of this activity, analytical examinations of seafood with respect to microorganisms, parasites and the presence of undesirable substances are conducted. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) is the competent authority regarding veterinary border control in Norway. On behalf of NFSA, IMR have carried out the analytical examination of the seafood samples in this monitoring programme and elaborated this report.

According to Commission Regulation (EC) No 136/2004 (EU 2004, FOR-2015-11-30-1347) the monitoring plans must be based upon the nature of the products and the potential risks associated with the different product categories, concidering all relevant factors such as frequency and number of incoming consignments and results from previous monitoring. The selection of parameters included in the current analytical activity was based on previous findings in this program, as well as information available in the RASFF, “Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed” system of the European commission.

The spectrum of products examined by NFSA at veterinary border inspection points is large, as it reflects the annual flux and variation in the import activity. Thus, the methods used to examine the products are also diverse.

Microbiological parameters are used to evaluate the safety and quality of seafood products and if proper hygienic measures were applied during production. To evaluate possible fecal contamination, analysis for common indicator organisms were conducted, including assays for coliforms, bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae family and enterococci. Furthermore, samples were analyzed for specific pathogens relevant for food safety, including bacteria in the geni Salmonella , Listeria and Vibrio . EU microbiological criteria, which Norway has implemented through the EEA agreement, have been established for Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes (Commission Regulation 2073/2005).

Antimicrobial resistance is a prevalent challenge to global public health. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are priority pathogens for which research and urgent development of new antibiotics is needed (WHO 2017) . Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in sea food imported from South East Asia (Janecko, Martz et al. 2016) . Although this is true, there are currently no regulations on screening of these antibiotic resistant pathogens in imported seafood.

According to current EU legislation (Directive 96/23), some drugs are illegal to use in animals intended for food production. Thus, samples from aquaculture were analyzed for such agents. Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic agent with activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Due to a rare but serious dose-independent adverse effect (aplastic anaemia), this agent is not authorized in the treatment of food-producing animals, including fish. Nitrofuranes were previously widely used in veterinary medicine as an antimicrobial agent. They were banned from use in the European Union (EU) in 1995 due to concerns about the carcinogenicity of their residues in edible tissue. Relevant farmaceuticals were analysed in farmed seafood products.

The survey included the chemical spoilage indicator histamine.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is used to treat fresh fish and especially tuna to retain a fresh, red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a rather stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex. No direct health implications from eating CO-treated fish is known, however, the practice is problematic, because it may mask spoilage, as the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. As no official maximum level is set, samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g according to Marrone et al. (2015) .

Undesirable trace elements relevant for seafood safety occur naturally in the environment with large geographical variations, due to their geological presence. Furthermore, they are released from anthropogenic sources. These compounds may to some extent accumulate in food chains and thus find their way into wild caught seafood. Cultured seafood can be affected via contaminated feed. As implemented in in EC 1881/2006, the elements cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), were measured and the compliance of the values with the maximum levels was evaluated. Arsenic (As), although exhibiting a low level of toxicity in seafood, was also included. There is no maximum level for As in seafood, in contrast to the legislation concerning terrestrial foods.

Persistent organic pollutants form a heterogeneous group of lipophilic substances that exhibit a range of chemical and toxicological characteristics. They are persistent in the environment and accumulate in food chains. Some classes of POPs are considered a dietary hazard to human health. The compliance of selected samples with the established maximum levels for food stuffs (EC 1881/2006) was evaluated for the contaminats: dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs, the EU selected “non-dioxin like-PCBs”, and for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Flame-retardant compounds in the polybrominated diphenyl ethers family (PBDEs) were also measured. P BDEs are found in plastics, textiles, electronic castings and circuitry. As these products age and eventually are discarded, the PBDEs finds their way into the environment and from there, into biota and into food and feed. The EU recommends a monitoring of the BDE compound class in food (EU 2014) . However, n o maximum limits have been established in food. EFSA performed a risk assessment of BDEs in food in 2011 (EFSA CONTAM Panel 2011) . They concluded that the current dietary exposures of BDE-47, -153 and -209 did not raise health concerns. However, the current dietary exposure of BDE-99 was labelled a potential health concern .

2 - Materials and methods

Sampling was carried out by NFSA at the Norwegian Border Inspection Posts (BIPs) while analytical examinations and the writing of this report was conducted by IMR. The sampling targeted hazards associated with each kind of imported products, and took into account import volumes, compositional nature of the products, results from previous monitoring, geographical origin of samples, and information available in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). This report concerns samples imported to Norway in 2019.

Fresh sample were directly shipped to IMR and frozen samples were stored frozen in the BIPs until shipment in the frozen state to IMR for analysis. Upon arrival, samples were registered at the IMR sample reception unit, each sample photographed, and relevant information registered in a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The microbiological assay was carried out prior to all other sample handling. The sample was then further prepared for analyses and split in sub-samples (aliquots) for the different assays and analytical methods.

In general, the edible part of the samples for human consumption was selected for analyses, according to a manual with specific instructions for each kind of sample. For undesirable species where a legal maximum level was defined, the tissue specified in the regulation was selected. The analytical methods and procedures used were accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard, unless otherwise specified. A summary of the chemical analytical methods, accreditation status and their performance data are listed in Annex 2.

The evaluations of the analytical data in the report is based primarily on the EU maximum levels (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 2006/1881, of which a summary is presented in Annex 3 of this report; Commission Regulation (EU) No. 2073/2005, 37/2010 and 1019/2013) and EU recommendations. The maximum levels provide a legal framework for trade. For undesirables with no maximum level in place, the reference basis selected for the discussion/ interpretation were published opinions or food safety evaluations from scientific expert committees (when available), or the analytical range commonly observed for this undesirable in seafood from pristine or semi-pristine waters.

3 - Results and discussion

A total of 129 samples from the NFSA at Norwegian BIPs, were examined by a selection of methods for microorganisms and undesirable chemical species as shown in the table below. Data tables are presented in Annex 1. Method performance data are listed in Annex 2. A summary of EU maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs are listed in Annex 3.

Samples and assays included in the Norwegian veterinary border control of seafood 2019
 FishCrustaceansCephalopodsBivalvesFeed/ flourMarine OilsOtherTotal number
Microbiology5314312101194
Antibiotic resistance02000002
Drug residues and dyes62000008
Chemical spoilage indicators12000001426
Carbon monoxide20000002
Undesirable trace elements52132121036116
POPs (PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE)12010031531
PAH00000011

3.1 - Microbiology

The detailed results from the microbiological examinations are listed in Annex 1 (Table 1). A total of 94 samples were examined for microorganisms by a range of assays.

One sample of Pacific oysters was examined for E. coli by the Donovan method as specified by EU, and < 18 bacteria/100 gram sample material was found (result not shown in table). The same sample was examined for the presence of Norovirus by RT-PCR in accordance with ISO15216-1 (Horizontal method for determination of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food using real-time RT-PCR -Part 1: Method for quantification), and this was also negative.

Sixty-nine samples were analysed for coliforms by the 3M TM Petrifilm method, and numbers above the detection level of 10 colony forming units (cfu)/g were found in four samples. One sample of Malabar blood snapper from Sri Lanka had 50 coliforms/g, and three samples from Vietnam where the products were swim bladder (species unknown), Sweet chili marinated prawns and Purpleback squid had 370, 30 and 200 coliforms/g respectively. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms by 3M TM Petrifilm found that one sample of shrimp flour from Thailand had 10 cfu/g, and one sample of swim bladder from Vietnam had 330 cfu/g. All other results for the determination of thermotolerant coliforms were below the detection limit of 10 cfu/g.

Twenty samples were analysed for the presence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus , and all were under the levels of detection (100 cfu/g). Twenty-six samples analysed for the presence of anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria were all under the detection limit of 100 cfu/g. Six samples were anlysed for Enterobacteriaceae, and one sample of fish cakes from China was over the detection limit (10 cfu/g) with 40 cfu/g. Seventy-one samples were analysed for the presence of enterococci, and all were below the detection limit of 100 cfu/g.

Sixty-four samples were were analysed for L. monocytogenes and the bacterium was detected qualitatively in one sample of tilapia from China. The sample was further examined quantitatively, and the number of L. monocytogenes was found to be below the detection limit of 10 cfu/g.

No pathogens in the genus Salmonella (n=94 samples) were detected, and neither was Vibrio sp. (n=17).

Ten samples were examined for the presence of mould and yeast. The same sample of swim bladder from Vietnam that showed detection levels of coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms also had elevated levels of mould and yeast, with 2200 and 200 cfu/g respectively. One additional sample of Atlantic cod had 100 and 200 cfu/g of yeast and mould respectively. The other samples were all below detection limit of 100 cfu/g.

3.2 - Antibiotic resistance

Two samples of shrimps imported from Vietnam were checked for the presence of ESBL/Carbapenemase producing Enterobactereciae. None of the samples showed presence of these resistant pathogens (Annex 1, Table 2). This is in accordance with the results from detection of coliforms in these samples.

3.3 - Drug residues and dyes

Eigth samples originating from aquaculture were analysed for residues of prohibited veterinary medicines (unauthorised dyes and antibacterial agents). The analysis included the dye compounds crystal violet (CV), leuco crystal violet (LCV), malachite green (MG), leuco malachite green (LMG), brilliant green (BG), and the antibacterial agents chloramphenicol and nitrofuran metabolites. None unauthorised dyes were detected in any of the analysed samples, nor were any traces of chloramphenicol or nitrofuranes found. Details of analysed samples are given in Annex 1, Table 3 (unauthorised dyes) and Table 4 (antibacterial agents).

3.4 - Chemical spoilage indicators

The chemical spoilage indicator histamine was examined in a total of twenty-six samples (Annex 1, Table 5). All results were compliant. The highest histamine value of 44 mg/kg ww was found in samples of Indian mackerel ( Clarias sp.).

3.5 - Carbon monoxide

Two samples were analysed for carbon monoxide and no indication for a treatment with CO was found (Annex 1, Table 6).

3.6 - Undesirable trace elements

The concentrations of the elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were examined in 116 samples, selected by criteria intended to maximize the probability of finding non-compliant concentrations. The analytical data are listed in Annex 1, Table 7.

In most seafood, arsenic is mainly present as organo-metal chemical species of low toxicity, such as arsenobetaine and arsenolipids. This characteristic of marine foods set them apart from foods of terrestrial origin, in which toxic inorganic arsenic species give a significant contribution to the elemental arsenic concentration. Thus, in 2019 no relevant maximum level on elemental As was in place for the samples analysed. The observed values for elemental As were mostly within the range occasionally observed in seafood from pristine waters. However, two samples of Pandalus shrimp from the Russian Federation, were measured with relatively high concentrations of 800 and 700 mg/kg ww respectively. These high values are consistent with 2018 results, where two samples of Pandalus shrimp from the Russian Federation were measured with high values.

A sample of dry prawn powder made of Pandalus borealis , imported from Albania, exhibited a high Cd value of 5.5 mg/kg dw. However, on request, the producer reported a processing factor of 10% from fresh shrimps to the ready dried product analysed here. If the processing factor and the measurement uncertainty of the method would be taken into account, the maximum level of 0.5 mg/kg ww would not be exceeded .

The second highest value of 0.53 mg Cd/kg dw was found in dried cuttlefish Sepiella japonica , declared as not intended for human consumption. Thus, it was compliant in respect to the maximum limit. The average Cd concentration in a sample of dried and frozen anchovy, Stolephorus spp. was measured to be 0.24 mg/kg dw. Assuming the consumption of whole fish, the maximum limit of 0.05 mg/kg ww would be exceeded without considering a processing factor. However, if considering a dry matter content of 25%, as often found in other anchoyy species like Engraulis spp., and the uncertainty of the measurement, the maximum level would not be exceeded. All other values were below their respective maximum levels.

A significant part of the elemental mercury (Hg) in seafood is present as methylmercury, a compound with a documented toxic character. Thus, there are maximum levels in place for Hg in seafood. However,they are provided in terms of the total elemental concentration (EU 2006) (Annex 3). The highest concentration of Hg was found in a fillet from Obtuse barracuda ( Sphyraena obtusata ) from Sri Lanka with 0.78 mg/kg ww and was above the maximum level.

For elemental lead (Pb), all measured values were below their respective maximum levels.

3.7 - Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

A selection of thirty-one of the most relevant samples were analysed for dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDLPCBs), also referred to as: EU-PCB 6 or “indicator” PCBs and polybrominated flame-retardants (PBDEs). PAHs were analysed in one sample, for which a maximum level was provided. Annex 3 provides a summary of the most relevant maximum levels.

3.7.1 - Dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Bifenyls (PCBs)

Table 8 lists the sum values of PCB, dioxins and furans, in terms of the summed dioxin like PCBs (DL-PCBs), the summed non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and the summed PCDDs and PCDFs, each sum calculated for each of the analysed samples. The maximum levels are defined in terms of upper bound (EU 2006, EU 2011) sum-parameters except for the sum-parameter NDL-PCBs which is the summed analytical concentration, based on the ng/g w.w. scale. The other sum-parameters are measured in the TEQ pg/g w.w. scale (toxic equivalents): in effect summing toxicities rather than their analytical concentrations (EU 2006) . The choice of scale is in line with the scales used for the EU maximum levels.

All measured values of 2019 were below their respective maximum limits.

3.7.2 - Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs or BDEs)

The data for seven individual BDE congeners (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183) and their upper bound sum (BDE7) for the thirty one samples are listed in Annex 1, Table 9. All the measured values were within a range occasionally observed in seafood from pristine waters.

3.7.3 - Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

PAH-compounds are generated from incomplete combustion of organic matter. In food processing PAHs may be formed from over-heating, and they find their way into smoked products from the smoking process. Bivalves can be contaminated from environmental PAH pollution adsorbed to water-suspended particles when these are ingested by the bivalve. There is a high number of compounds in this class. A few of them exhibit food safety issues: Maximum levels are in place for bivalves and smoked products (Annex 3); for Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alone, as well as for the lower bound sum (EU 2006) (LB-sum) of four selected PAH compounds; BaP, Benzo(a) anthracene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene (LB-sum PAH 4 ).

Only one sample was selected for PAH analysis, a smoked cod sample. Twenty individual PAH compounds were measured. Only the PAH data associated with a maximum level are listed. In this sample the measured values were below the maximum levels (Annex 1, Table 10).

4 - Conclusion

In total 129 samples, collected by the official staff at the Norwegian Border Inspection Posts of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, were examined for selected chemical and microbiological undesirables in 2019

The results for microbiological quality parameters and indicator organisms for faecal contamination generally showed low numbers in the 94 examined samples. However, higher counts were found in some samples. One sample of swim bladder imported from Vietnam had 370 coliforms/g and 330 thermotolerant coliform/g. In addition, one sample of Malabar blood snapper from Sri Lanka had 50 coliforms/g , and two samples of sweet chili marinated prawns and purpleback squid, both from Vietnam, had 30 and 200 coliforms/g respectively. Further, L. monocytogenes was detected qualitatively in one sample of tilapia from China. The sample was further examined quantitatively, and the number of L. monocytogenes was found to be below the detection limit of 10 cfu/g. N o samples had pathogens in the genera Salmonella or Vibrio , whereas Enterobacteriaceae was detected in one sample of fish cakes imported from China. Ten samples were examined for the presence of mould and yeast. Their presence was detected in one sample of swim bladder from Vietnam, and one sample of Atlantic cod from China. One sample of Pacific oysters was examined for the presence of E. coli and Norovirus, and it was found to be negative for both.

Antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in two samples of shrimps imported from Vietnam.

Eight samples, originating from global aquaculture were examined for residues of selected prohibited pharmaceuticals. The examination included the dye compounds crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, malachite green, leuco malachite green and brilliant green and also chloramphenicol and nitrofuran metabolites. No unauthorised dyes, nor residues of prohibited antibacterial agents were detected .

The chemical spoilage indicator histamin was examined in 26 samples. All results were compliant with their maximum levels.

Carbon monoxide was measured in two tuna samples and no indication of usage was found

The undesirable trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, were measured in 116 samples. Regarding cadmium, two samples for human consumption showed elevated values. A sample of dry prawn powder, made of Pandalus borealis , imported from Albania, exhibited a concentration of 5.5 mg/kg dw and a sample of dried and frozen anchovy, Stolephorus spp., was measured to contain 0.26 mg Cd/kg dw. However, if considering processing factors and uncertainty of the method, the sample would be compliant.

One fillet sample of Obtuse barracuda ( Sphyraena obtusata ) from Sri Lanka exceeded the maximum level for mercury with a concentration of 0.78 mg/kg ww.

For lead, all measured values were compliant with their maximum limits. For arsenic there is currently no maximum limit in force for seafood, due to the low human toxicity of the marine molecular spesies of this element.

Concerning the POP compounds, 31 samples were analysed: For dioxins and furans, for PCBs, including the twelve dioxin like PCBs, and for the six EU selected non-dioxin like PCBs, and for seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers. All measured values were below the legal limits where limits were provided. Regarding PAHs, one sample was analysed in 2019. It was compliant with its maximum limits .

5 - References

(FOR-2015-11-30-1347). Forskrift om gjennomføring av forordning (EF) nr. 136/2004 om fastsettelse av fremgangsmåtene for veterinærkontroller ved EØS grensekontrollstasjoner ved import av produkter fra tredjestater.

EFSA CONTAM Panel (2011). "Scientific opinion on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in food." EFSA Journal 9(5): 2156.

EU (2004). "Commission Regulation (EC) No 136/2004 of 22 January 2004 laying down procedures for veterinary checks at Community border inspection posts on products imported from third countries." Official Journal of the European Union 21(L21/11): 11-23.

EU (2006). "Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs." Official Journal of the European Union 49(L364): 5-24.

EU (2011). "Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011 of 2 December 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs." Official Journal of the European Union 320(L320): 18-23.

EU (2014). "Commission Recommendation of 3 March 2014 on the monitoring of traces of brominated flame retardants in food." Official Journal of the European Union 65(L65): 39-40.

Janecko, N., S.-L. Martz, B. P. Avery, D. Daignault, A. Desruisseau, D. Boyd, R. J. Irwin, M. R. Mulvey and R. J. Reid-Smith (2016). "Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp. in retail seafood imported from Southeast Asia to Canada." Emerging infectious diseases 22(9): 1675.

Marrone, R., C. Mascolo, G. Palma, G. Smaldone, M. Girasole and A. Anastasio (2015). "Carbon monoxide residues in vacuum-packed yellowfin tuna loins (Thunnus Albacares)." Italian journal of food safety 4(3).

WHO. (2017). "WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed." from http://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-02-2017-who-publishes-list-of-bacteria-for-which-new-antibiotics-are-urgently-needed .

6 - ANNEX 1: Data tables

 Indicator organisms (cfu/g) by agar method Faecal indicator organisms (cfu/g) by agar method Specific pathogensMould and yeast (cfu/g)
 EnterococcusCoag. pos. Staphylo coccusSulph.-red. bact.Entero-bacteriaceaeColiformsThermotolerant coliformsListeria monocytogenesSalmonellaVibrioMouldYeast
Journal No.OriginCategorySpeciesScientific nameTissue/ sample type/g/g/g/g/g/g/25 g/25 g/20 g/g/g
2019-9/1AUSTRALIA (AUS)FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-10/1AUSTRALIA (AUS)FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiMuscle with skin< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-14/1ALBANIA (ALB)FlourUnknownUnknownShrimpflour   < 10 < 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-16/1THAILAND (THA)Other UnknownUnknownCrabsticks < 100 < 10 < 10 n.d.   
2019-17/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-18/1CHINA (CHN)FishBlue grenadierMacruronus novaezelandiaeFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-19/1CHINA (CHN)FishPacific halibutHippoglossus stenolepisMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-20/1CANADA (CAN)CrustaceansShrimpPandalus borealisWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-21/1MYANMAR (MMR)Other Blue grenadierMacruronus novaezelandiaeBattered< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-22/1CHINA (CHN)FishAlaska pollockTheragra chalcogrammaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-23/1VIET NAM (VNM)Other Atlantic codGadus morhuaSwim bladder< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-52/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-53/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishObtuse barracudaSphyraena obtusataFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-63/1MALDIVES (MDV)FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-83/1CHINA (CHN)OilUnknownUnknownOil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-156/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishMalabar blood snapperLutjanus malabaricusMuscle< 100   50< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-157/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelScomberomorus commersonFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-177/1VIET NAM (VNM)Other UnknownUnknownSwim bladder< 100< 100< 100 370330 n.d. 2200200
2019-252/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-253/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-254/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-275/1THAILAND (THA)FishAnchovyStolephorus spp.Whole< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-334/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishGiant trevallyCaranx ignobilisMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-336/1CHINA (CHN)Other UnknownUnknownFish cakes < 100 40 < 10 n.d.   
2019-337/1MALAYSIA (MYS)OtherArgentine red shrimpPleoticus muelleriBattered< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-413/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-438/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishHaddockMelanogrammus aeglefinusMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-439/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishRose fishSebastes norvegicusWhole, gutted, headless< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-506/1VIET NAM (VNM)FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-507/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-508/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-509/1VIET NAM (VNM)CrustaceanBrown crabCancer pagurusWhite meat < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-510/1THAILAND (THA)Other Indian mackerelRastrelliger kanagurtaSteamed, frozen< 100< 100< 100  < 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-529/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-605/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-638/1VIET NAM (VNM)CrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BoonePeeled< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-639/1CANADA (CAN)CrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealisWhole < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-662/1PERU (PER)OilAnchovyEngraulis sp.Oil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-715/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)CrustaceanShrimpPandalus borealisWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-974/1VIET NAM (VNM)CrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BoonePeeled < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-975/1VIET NAM (VNM)FishIndian MackerelRastrelliger KanagurtaWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-976/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-977/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-978/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-978/2RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaWhole, gutted, headless< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-979/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishSaithePollachius virensFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-979/2RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishSaithePollachius virensWhole, gutted, headless< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-980/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-988/1CANADA (CAN)CrustaceanAmerican lobsterHomarus americanusWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-1012/1VIET NAM (VNM)CephalopodBaby CuttlefishSepiella japonicaWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1013/1VIET NAM (VNM)FishCatfishClarias sp.Whole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1050/1MOROCCO (MAR)OilAnchovyEngraulis sp.Oil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-1051/1MOROCCO (MAR)OilAnchovyEngraulis sp.Oil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-1099/1ARGENTINA (ARG)CephalopodArgentine shortfin squidIllex argentinusWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1127/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)CrustaceanShrimpPandalus borealisWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-1128/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)CrustaceanShrimpPandalus borealisWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-1336/1TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA (TWN) FishPacific sauryCololabis SairaWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1370/1THAILAND (THA)FlourShrimpUnknownFlour   < 10 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-1374/1CHINA (CHN)FishSaithePollachius virensMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1522/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)CrustaceanShrimpPandalus borealisWhole < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-1523/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic mackerelScomber scombrusWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1524/1CHINA (CHN)FishAlaska pollockTheragra chalcogrammaMuscle< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-1525/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1526/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1527/1CANADA (CAN)CrustaceanShrimpPandalus borealisPeeled < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-1528/1UNKNOWNBivalvePacific oysterCrassostrea gigasMuscle< 100     n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-1529/1CHINA (CHN)FishAlaska pollockTheragra chalcogrammaFillet< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1530/1MALAYSIA (MYS)OtherHokiMacruronus sp.Battered< 100   < 100< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1531/1CHINA (CHN)OilSquidUnknownOil  < 100  < 100 n.d.   
2019-1532/1MOROCCO (MAR)OilFishUnknownOil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-1533/1THAILAND (THA)Other UnknownUnknownCrabsticks < 100 < 10 < 10 n.d.   
2019-1614/1PERU (PER)OilAnchovyEngralus ringensOil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-1616/1VIET NAM (VNM)FishTunaScombridae sp.Muscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1622/1VIET NAM (VNM)OtherWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus VannameiSweetChili Marinated< 100   30< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-1630/1MAURITUS (MUS)FishTunaScombridae sp.Muscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1635/1VIET NAM (VNM)CrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BoonePeeled < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-1644/1RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUS)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-1831/1TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA (TWN) Fish Pacific sauryCololabis SairaWhole< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-2009/1VIET NAM (VNM)CephalopodPurpleback squidSthenoteuthis oualaniensisWhole< 100   200< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-2094/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10 n.d. 100200
2019-2095/1CHINA (CHN)Fish, smokedAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10n.d.n.d. < 100< 100
2019-2096/1CHINA (CHN)FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-2097/1CHINA (CHN)FishPacific CodGadus macrocephalusMuscle< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-2098/1CHINA (CHN)FishSaithePollachius virensMuscle< 100< 100< 100 < 10< 10 n.d. < 100< 100
2019-2116/1SRI LANKA (LKA)FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-2119/1AUSTRALIA (AUS)FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-2129/1VIET NAM (VNM)CrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BoonePeeled < 100< 100  < 10 n.d.n.d.  
2019-2130/1THAILAND (THA)Other UnknownUnknownCrabsticks < 100 < 10 < 10 n.d.   
2019-2131/1CHINA (CHN)FishTilapiaSarotherodon galilaeusFillet< 100   < 10< 10< 10n.d.   
2019-2132/1VIET NAM (VNM)FishStriped catfishPangasius hypophthalmusMuscle< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.   
2019-2184/1CANADA (CAN)CrustaceanAmerican lobsterHomarus americanusWhite meat< 100   < 10< 10n.d.n.d.n.d.  
2019-2312/1MOROCCO (MAR)OilAnchovyEngraulis ringensOil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-2313/1MOROCCO (MAR)OilAnchovyEngraulis ringensOil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   
2019-2314/1MOROCCO (MAR)OilFishUnknownOil  < 100  < 10 n.d.   

Table 1. Microbiological examination (n=94) Abbreviations: n.d.: not detected; D: detected; n.a.: not available;); CFU: Colony forming units.

Journal No.OriginCategorySpeciesScientific nameESBL- producing EnterobacteriaceaeCarbapenemase- producing Enterobacteriaceae
2019-638/1VIETNAM (VNM)AquacultureWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei Boonen.d.n.d.
2019-974/1VIETNAM (VNM)AquacultureWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei Boonen.d.n.d.

Table 2. Antibiotic resistance (n=2)

Journal No.OriginGroupSpeciesScientific nameTissueCV LOD: 0.3 µg/kgLCV LOD: 0.15µg/kgMG LOD: 0.15µg/kgLMG LOD: 0.15µg/kgBG LOD: 0.15 µg/kg
2019-638/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meatn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-974/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meatn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-1013/2VNMLimnic FishClarias sp.Clarias sp.Filetn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-2131/1CHNLimnic FishTilapiaSarotherodon galilaeusFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-2132/1VNMMarine FishStriped catfishPangasius hypophthalmusFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-9/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-10/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet/skinn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-2119/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.

Table 3. Residues of prohibited veterinary medicines and dyes, (n=8). Abbreviations: n.d.: not detected, CV: crystal violet, LCV: leuco crystal violet, MG: malachite green LMG: leuco malachite green, BG: brilliant green

Journal No.OriginGroupProductScientific nameTissueCAM LOD: 0.25 µg/kgAHD LOD: 0.6 µg/kgAOZ LOD: 0.5 µg/kgAMOZ LOD: 0.4 µg/kgSEM LOD: 0.5 µg/kg
2019-638/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meatn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-974/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meatn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-1013/2VNMLimnic FishClarias sp.Clarias sp.Filetn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-2131/1CHNLimnic FishTilapiaSarotherodon galilaeusFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-2132/1VNMMarine FishStriped catfishPangasius hypophthalmusFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-9/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-10/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet/skinn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
2019-2119/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFiletn.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.

Table 4. Residues of prohibited veterinary Antibacterial agents, Chloramphenicol and nitrofuran metabolites (n=8). Abbreviations: n.d.: not detected, CAM: chloramphenicol, AHD: 1-amino-hydantoin, AOZ: 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AMOZ: 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone, SEM: semicarbazide

Journal No.OriginGroupSpeciesScientific nameTissueHistamine mg/kg w.w.
2019-1013/2VNMLimnic FishClarias sp.Clarias sp.Filet< 5
2019-156/1LKAMarine FishMalabar blood snapperLutjanus malabaricusFilet< 5
2019-975/2VNMMarine FishIndian MackerelRastrelliger kanagurtaFilet44
2019-157/1LKAMarine FishNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelScomberomorus commersonFilet< 5
2019-9/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet< 5
2019-10/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet/skin< 5
2019-53/1LKAMarine FishObtuse barracudaSphyraena obtusataFilet< 5
2019-275/1THAMarine FishStolephorus spp.Stolephorus spp.Filet< 5
2019-52/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< 5
2019-63/1MDVMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< 5
2019-413/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< 5
2019-506/1VNMMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< 5
2019-348/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< 5
2019-350/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< 5
2019-355/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< 5
2019-359/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< 5
2019-361/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< 5
2019-510/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodRastrellinger kanagurtan.a.< 5
2019-1094/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodThunnus albacaresn.a.< 5
2019-343/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.< 5
2019-1091/1MDVProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.< 5
2019-1092/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.< 5
2019-1093/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.8.6
2019-1096/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.< 5
2019-1097/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.< 5
2019-1098/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.< 5

Table 5. Chemical spoilage indicators; histamine (n=26).

Journal No.OriginCategorySpeciesScientific nameTissueCarbon monoxide (ng/g)
2019-52/1Sri LankaWild fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet /Muscle65
2019-63/1MaledivesWild fishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFillet /Muscle20

Table 6. Carbon monoxide, (n=2).

Journal No.OriginGroupProductScientific nameTissueAsCdHgPb
2019-1528/1N.A.BivalvesPacific oysterCrassostrea gigasMuscle2.40.470.0060.14
2019-1012/1VNMCephalopodDried baby cuttlefish (NHC)Sepiella japonicaMuscle0.720.530.0090.041
2019-2009/2VNMCephalopodPurpleback squidSthenoteuthis oualaniensisMuscle5.70.420.0140.006
2019-509/1VNMCrustaceanBrown crabCancer pagurusWhite meat210.0140.060.007
2019-988/1CANCrustaceanAmerican lobsterHomarus americanusWhite meat9.70.120.12< .004
2019-2184/1CANCrustaceanAmerican lobsterHomarus americanusWhite meat5.90.0120.0550.005
2019-639/2CANCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealisWhite meat120.210.15< .005
2019-20/2CANCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealis White meat120.190.0240.025
2019-715/1RUSCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealis White meat810.330.0150.015
2019-1127/2RUSCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealis White meat7000.330.120.041
2019-1128/2RUSCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealis White meat8100.460.160.021
2019-1522/2RUSCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealis White meat1000.0560.031< .005
2019-1527/1CANCrustaceanNorthern shrimpPandalus borealis White meat3.50.0170.051< .004
2019-638/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meat0.390.00070.0050.006
2019-974/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meat0.320.0030.008< .005
2019-1635/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meat0.79< .00090.008< .004
2019-2129/1VNMCrustaceanWhiteleg shrimpPenaeus vannamei BooneWhite meat0.270.0030.01< .005
2019-14/1ALBFlourFlour from prawnsPandalus borealisFlour375.50.0970.14
2019-1370/1THAFlourFlour from prawnsAcetes sp.Flour9.50.310.0210.12
2019-1013/2VNMLimnic FishClarias sp.Clarias sp.Filet0.94< .0010.029< .005
2019-2131/1CHNLimnic FishTilapiaSarotherodon galilaeusFilet0.21< .0010.003< .005
2019-1336/1TWNMarine FishPacific sauryCololabis siraFilet10.180.0730.01
2019-1831/1TWNMarine FishPacific sauryCololabis sairaFilet1.50.120.05< .008
2019-2097/1CHNMarine FishPacific CodGadus macrocephalusFilet8.7< .010.1< .06
2019-17/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet2.80.0010.083< .004
2019-252/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet1.8< .0010.019< .005
2019-253/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet0.94< .00090.043< .004
2019-254/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet3.8< .00090.024< .005
2019-507/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet1.9< .00070.028< .004
2019-508/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet11< .00090.029< .004
2019-529/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet1.5< .00090.0930.009
2019-605/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet0.62< .00090.017< .004
2019-976/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet17< .00080.064< .004
2019-977/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet3.7< .00090.026< .004
2019-978/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet1.9< .00090.016< .005
2019-980/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet12< .00090.03< .005
2019-1525/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet0.630.00090.01< .003
2019-1526/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet2.80.0010.029< .004
2019-1644/1RUSMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet5.2< .00090.032< .005
2019-2094/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet3.2< .00060.05< .003
2019-2095/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic cod smokedGadus morhuaFilet8.4< .0030.04< .02
2019-2096/1CHNMarine FishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFilet4.1< .00080.02< .004
2019-19/1CHNMarine FishPacific halibutHippoglossus stenolepisFilet1.2< .0010.08< .005
2019-156/1LKAMarine FishMalabar blood snapperLutjanus malabaricusFilet0.30.0010.079< .005
2019-18/1CHNMarine Fishblue grenadierMacruronus novaezelandiaeFilet0.660.0010.36< .004
2019-438/1RUSMarine FishHaddockMelanogrammus aeglefinusFilet12< .00090.0470.006
2019-2132/1VNMMarine FishStriped catfishPangasius hypophthalmusFilet0.022< .0010.003< .007
2019-979/1RUSMarine FishSaithePollachius virensFilet1.1< .0010.029< .005
2019-1374/1CHNMarine FishSaithePollachius virensFilet1.10.0010.0440.006
2019-2098/1CHNMarine FishSaithePollachius virensFilet1.10.0040.097< .01
2019-975/2VNMMarine FishIndian MackerelRastrelliger kanagurtaFilet0.910.0040.0120.007
2019-1523/2RUSMarine FishAtlantic mackerelScomber scombrusFilet2.50.020.023< .01
2019-157/1LKAMarine FishNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelScomberomorus commersonFilet1.80.0010.18< .006
2019-439/1RUSMarine FishRose fishSebastes norvegicusFilet2.8< .0010.032< .005
2019-9/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.47< .0020.042< .01
2019-10/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.36< .0020.043< .008
2019-2119/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.42< .0020.032< .008
2019-53/1LKAMarine FishObtuse barracudaSphyraena obtusataFilet2.30.0050.78< .005
2019-275/1THAMarine FishStolephorus spp.Stolephorus spp.Filet3.70.24*0.0270.065
2019-1524/1CHNMarine FishAlaska pollockTheragra chalcogrammaFilet0.81< .010.012< .06
2019-1529/1CHNMarine FishAlaska pollockTheragra chalcogrammaFilet4.20.0040.11< .003
2019-22/1CHNMarine fishAlaska pollockTheragra chalcogrammaFilet0.890.0040.038< .004
2019-52/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet1.50.010.21< .006
2019-63/1MDVMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet1.40.0080.4< .005
2019-413/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet0.850.010.24< .006
2019-506/1VNMMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet0.650.0090.25< .005
2019-2116/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet1.50.0090.2< .006
2019-1616/1VNMMarine FishTunan.a.Filet10.0050.28< .006
2019-1630/1MUSMarine FishTunan.a.Filet0.950.0120.27< .006
2019-83/1CHNOilOilEngraulis ringensOil0.0410.023< .0050.1
2019-662/1PEROilOilEngraulis ringensOil7.4< .005< .005< .02
2019-2312/1MAROilOilEngraulis ringensOil2.8< .005< .005< .02
2019-2313/1MAROilOilEngraulis ringensOil5.5< .005< .005< .02
2019-1050/1MAROilOiln.a.Oil5.3< .005< .005< .02
2019-1051/1MAROilOiln.a.Oil5.3< .004< .004< .02
2019-1531/1CHNOilOiln.a.Oil8.90.035< .0050.023
2019-1532/1MAROilOiln.a.Oil0.017< .003< .003< .02
2019-1614/1PERoilOiln.a.Oil7.3< .004< .004< .02
2019-2314/1MAROilOiln.a.Oil2.8< .004< .004< .02
2019-23/1VNMProcessed foodCod basedGadus morhuaSwim bladder0.170.0170.0290.025
2019-348/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.950.0220.061< .01
2019-350/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.1.20.0180.033< .006
2019-355/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.1.80.0170.03< .01
2019-359/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.450.0150.0390.013
2019-361/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.10.0220.0390.007
2019-21/1MMRProcessed foodSeafoodMacruronus novaezelandiaen.a.0.740.0040.043< .01
2019-1622/1VNMProcessed foodSeafoodPenaeus Vannamein.a.0.250.0020.0030.007
2019-510/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodRastrellinger kanagurtan.a.0.960.0070.0070.009
2019-1094/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodThunnus albacaresn.a.0.850.0060.023< .01
2019-16/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.110.0020.006< .006
2019-177/1VNMProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.Swim bladder0.270.0150.0340.044
2019-336/1CHNProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.450.0160.0050.014
2019-337/1MYSProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.710.0580.009< .008
2019-1095/1VNMProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.2.40.120.020.13
2019-1530/1MYSProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.80.0050.031< .009
2019-1533/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.0860.0020.005< .006
2019-2130/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.15< .0010.009< .005
2019-2167/1PHLProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.2.20.150.020.036
2019-2168/1MARProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.2.40.10.0110.025
2019-2171/1MARProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.1.10.0510.0060.015
2019-2173/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodn.a.n.a.0.950.0370.0090.3
2019-343/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.10.0190.037< .009
2019-1091/1MDVProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.650.0340.15< .005
2019-1092/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.680.020.051< .005
2019-1093/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.870.010.032< .009
2019-1096/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.1.60.0150.029< .005
2019-1097/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.10.0380.1< .005
2019-1098/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.880.0170.056< .005
2019-1375/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.1.10.0220.096< .004
2019-2136/1VNMProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.70.0150.1< .005
2019-2169/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.10.0180.031< .008
2019-2170/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.950.0070.018< .01
2019-2172/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.80.0130.035< .005
2019-2174/1MUSProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.1.20.0280.08< .009
2019-2175/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.710.010.053< .005
2019-2177/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.10.0220.053< .004
 Maximum value8105.50.780.30
 Second largest value7000.530.40.14

Table 7. Elemental concentration of undesireable elments in mg/kg ww (n=116). Abbreviations: NHC = “Not for human consumption”, different maximum levels then apply.

*Average of two analytical measurements

Journal No.OriginProductScientific nameTissueSum DL-PCBsPCDDs+ PCDFsTotal TEQSum NDL-PCBs
2019-1012/1VNMCephalopodBaby CuttlefishSepiella japonicaMuscle0.0110.160.17
2019-1013/2VNMLimnic FishClarias sp.Clarias sp.Filet0.0900.150.24
2019-156/1LKAMarine FishMalabar blood snapperLutjanus malabaricusFilet0.0740.090.17
2019-975/2VNMMarine FishIndian MackerelRastrelliger knagurtaFilet0.0860.170.26
2019-157/1LKAMarine FishNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelScomberomorus commersonFilet0.200.140.33
2019-9/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.160.130.29
2019-10/1AUSMarine FishYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.180.110.29
2019-53/1LKAMarine FishObtuse barracudaSphyraena obtusataFilet0.0940.080.17
2019-275/1THAMarine FishStolephorus spp.Stolephorus spp.Filet0.140.190.33
2019-52/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet0.0130.030.04
2019-63/1MDVMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet0.0040.030.03
2019-413/1LKAMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet0.0070.030.04
2019-506/1VNMMarine FishYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet0.0070.020.03
2019-662/1PEROilOilEngraulis ringensOil0.7610.471.23
2019-1050/1MAROilOiln.a.Oil0.850.381.23
2019-1051/1MAROilOiln.a.Oil0.870.411.28
2019-348/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.0120.050.07
2019-350/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.0070.030.03
2019-355/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.0180.150.17
2019-359/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.0070.040.05
2019-361/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.0.0200.080.10
2019-510/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodRastrellinger kanagurtan.a.0.0150.060.07
2019-1094/1THAProcessed foodSeafoodThunnus albacaresn.a.0.0240.200.22
2019-343/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0150.080.10
2019-1091/1MDVProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0050.030.04
2019-1092/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0090.030.04
2019-1093/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0270.200.23
2019-1096/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0050.030.04
2019-1097/1PHLProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0030.020.03
2019-1098/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0050.030.03
2019-1375/1THAProcessed foodTuna basedn.a.n.a.0.0140.050.06
 Maximum values0.870.471.36.81
 Second largest value0.850.411.26.1

Table 8. Dioxins and PCBs, n=31. Abbreviations: PCDD: Dioxins, PCDF: Furans, DL-PCBS: Dioxin like PCBs, NDL-PCBs: Non-Dioxin like PCBs. The analytical concentrations of 28 different compounds are summed as ”Toxic Equivalence values” (TEQ-values) , to give three distinct (Upper bound) sum-parameters: Sum-PCDD+PCDF, sum DLPCBs and total TEQ sum. TEQ-values are provided in the pg/g (w/w) scale (pico-grams per gram in the naturally moist sample state). The indicator NDL-PCBs are provided as the upper bound sum of their analytical concentrations (Not TEQ-values), in the µg/kg (w/w) scale.

Journal No. Origin Species Scient. Name Tissue PBDE-28 PBDE-47 PBDE-99 PBDE-100 PBDE-153 PBDE-154 PBDE-183 UB Sum 7-PBDE
2019-1012/1VNMBaby CuttlefishSepiella japonicaMuscle< .00050.0015< .0008< .0005< .0008< .0005< .00330.01
2019-1013/2VNMClarias sp.Clarias sp.Filet< .00120.030.0270.0160.00860.015< .00810.11
2019-156/1LKAMalabar blood snapperLutjanus malabaricusFilet< .00170.012< .00280.0043< .00280.0043< .0120.04
2019-975/2VNMIndian MackerelRastrelliger kanagurtaFilet< .00180.0120.0050.0043< .0030.0048< .0120.04
2019-157/1LKANarrow-barred Spanish mackerelScomberomorus commersonFilet0.0020.0620.0140.0340.010.04< .0110.17
2019-9/1AUSYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.00490.0920.0190.0230.0050.021< .00810.17
2019-10/1AUSYellowtailSeriola lalandiFilet0.00560.160.0480.0450.00950.027< .00720.30
2019-53/1LKAObtuse barracudaSphyraena obtusataFilet0.00160.0230.00390.0120.00310.017< .00810.07
2019-275/1THAStolephorus spp.Stolephorus spp.Filet< .00650.028< .0110.0098< .0110.011< .0460.12
2019-52/1LKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< .000760.0017< .0013< .0008< .001< .0008< .00530.01
2019-63/1MDVYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< .00080.0025< .0013< .0008< .0013< .0008< .00520.01
2019-413/1LKAYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< .000810.00095< .0014< .0008< .0014< .0008< .00570.01
2019-506/1VNMYellowfin tunaThunnus albacaresFilet< .00070.0012< .0012< .0007< .0012< .0007< .00490.01
2019-662/1PEROilEngraulis ringensOil0.0816.30.131.8< .0430.62< .189.00
2019-1050/1MAROiln.a.Oil< .0250.22< .0420.042< .042< .025< .0740.47
2019-1051/1MAROiln.a.Oil< .0240.210.050.041< .040.024< .0710.46
2019-348/1THATuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< .0012< .0012< .0021< .0012< .0021< .0012< .00870.02
2019-350/1THATuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< .000770.00082< .0013< .0008< .0013< .0008< .00540.01
2019-355/1THATuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< .00140.00550.0170.0070.00360.002< .00960.05
2019-359/1THATuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< .000980.0021< .0017< .001< .0017< .001< .00680.02
2019-361/1THATuna basedKatsuwonus pelamisn.a.< .0010.005< .0017< .001< .0017< .001< .00710.02
2019-510/1THASeafoodRastrellinger kanagurtan.a.< .00160.0041< .0026< .0016< .0026< .0016< .0110.03
2019-1094/1THASeafoodThunnus albacaresn.a.< .00410.0063< .0071< .0041< .0071< .0041< .0290.06
2019-343/1THATuna basedn.a.n.a.< .00110.00380.0055< .0011< .0018< .0011< .00740.02
2019-1091/1MDVTuna basedn.a.n.a.< .000630.0016< .00110.00079< .00110.0012< .00440.01
2019-1092/1THATuna basedn.a.n.a.< .000630.0015< .0011< .0006< .0011< .0006< .00440.01
2019-1093/1PHLTuna basedn.a.n.a.< .00770.017< .013< .0077< .013< .0077< .0540.12
2019-1096/1THATuna basedn.a.n.a.< .000620.00087< .001< .0006< .001< .0006< .00430.01
2019-1097/1PHLTuna basedn.a.n.a.< .000650.001< .0011< .0007< .0011< .0007< .00450.01
2019-1098/1THATuna basedn.a.n.a.< .000670.0015< .0011< .0007< .0011< .0007< .0050.01
2019-1375/1THATuna basedn.a.n.a.< .0030.0044< .0051< .003< .0051< .003< .0210.01
   Maximum value0.086.30.131.80.010.62<LOQ0.47 
   Second largest value0.0060.220.050.050.010.04-0.46 

Table 9. Selected Brominated Flame Retardants , PBDEs in µg/kg ww (n=31).

Journal No.Imported fromGroupSpeciesScient. nameTissueBaPLB Sum PAH4
2019-2095/1CHNSmoked marine fishAtlantic codGadus morhuaFillet< .0120.1

Table 10. Selected PAH compounds in µg/kg ww (n=1).

7 - ANNEX 2: Method performance data

CompoundsMatrixMethod principleAnalytical method LOD in muscle (µg/kg w.w.) Analytical method LOQ (µg/kg w.w.) Level of actionLaboratory
Therapeutic agents and dyesChloramphenicolMuscleLC-MS/MS0.25-Presence (MRPL=0.3)IMR
3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.5-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
1-Aminohydrantoin (AHD)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.6-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
3-Amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.4-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
Semicarbazide (SEM)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.5-Presence (MRPL=1.0)IMR
Malachite green (MG)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-Presence (MRPL=2.0)IMR
Leuco malachite green (LMG)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-Presence (MRPL=2.0)IMR
Crystal violet (CV)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-PresenceIMR
Leuco crystal violet (LCV)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-PresenceIMR
Brilliant green (BG)MuscleLC-MS/MS0.15-PresenceIMR
POPsPCDD and PCDF (dioxin and furan) congeners MuscleHRGC-HRMS-2*10-5-0.02 ng/kg1 TEQSee annex 3IMR
non-orto PCB congenersMuscleHRGC-HRMS-2*10-5-0.02 ng/kg1 TEQSee annex 3IMR
Mono-orto PCB congenersMuscleHRGC-MSMS-2*10-5-0.02 ng/kg1 TEQSee annex 3IMR
NDLPCB congenersMuscleHRGC-MSMS-0.005-0.03See annex 3IMR
PBDE-congenersMuscleHRGC-MSMS-0.0004-0.02n.a.IMR
PAH See annex 3HRGC-MSMS-0.05-0.4See Annex 3IMR
Chemical elementsPbMuscleICPMS-4-20See Annex 3IMR
CdMuscleICPMS-0.5-10See Annex 3IMR
AsMuscleICPMS-10-80See Annex 3IMR
HgMuscleICPMS-2-10See Annex 3IMR
Indicators of spoilageHistamineMuscleHPLC-UV-5 mg/kg -IMR
Table 11. Summary of the 2019 chemical analytical methods of the Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway

8 - ANNEX 3: Regulatory maximum levels

A selection of regulatory maximum levels for contaminants in seafood from on EU Commission regulation no 1881/2006
Element or pollutantUnit of measure-mentMarin Fish Fillet1Some fish species Fillet1Wild caught Eel Fillet1Fresh water Fish Fillet1Smoked seafood productsFish liverCrustaceans: White meatBivalves and smoked bivalves2Cephalo-pods3Marine Oils HC4
Arsenic (As)mg/kg w.w.6- --------
Cadmium (Cd)0.050.1-0.2580.050.050.05-0.256,8-0.51.061.0-
Mercury (Hg)0.51.01.00.50.56,80.50.50.560.5-
Lead (Pb)0.30.30.30.30.36,8-0.51.560.3-
Sum of dioxins and furans 5 pg/g TEQ w.w. 63.53.53.53.53.56,8-3.53.563.51.75
Sum of dioxin like PCBs 5 ----------
Sum of dioxins. furans and dioxin like PCBs 5 6.56.5106.56.56,8206.56.566.56
Sum of six NDLPCBs5 ng/g w.w.67575300125756,82007575675200
PAH Benzo[a]pyreneμg/kg w.w. 6----2-52,6,8--5 (6)2-2
PAH 4 , sum of 4 PAH compounds 7 μg/kg w.w.6----12-302,6,8--30 (35)2-10

Based on Commission regulation 1881/2006, Commission Regulation 1259/2011 amending Regulation 1881/2006 and Commission regulation (EU) 835/2011 amending Regulation 1881/2006.

  • 1) When fish is intended to be eaten whole, the level should be applied to the whole product.

  • 2) Value in brackets concerns smoked bivalves.

  • 3) Without viscera.

  • 4) HC = Human consumption pg/g fat

  • 5) Upper bound sum calculation is assumed.

  • 6) Wet weight (w.w.); the concentration in a naturally moist sample. Values for dried or otherwise processed food should be transformed to w.w.

  • 7) Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene, assuming a lower bound sum calculation.

  • 8) Value change with different biological species